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Industrial Revolution WHAP
Transcript of Industrial Revolution WHAP
The Factory System
Ms. Harty is aca-awesome
Trigger of Industrial Revolution
Domestic system: Most of manufactured goods made at home or in small shops.
New inventions: John Kay's Flying Shuttle (weaving), and James Hargreave's Spinning Jenny (thread), Richard Arkwright's Waterframe (fabric weaving), and Eli Whitney's Cotton Gin led to removal of textile industry to mills.
Technological Innovations: Textiles
New crops from Americas: potatoes and corn.
Crop rotations to use all land at once.
Enclosure of public farm lands.
New machines: chemical fertilizers, plowing, seeding, reaping.
led to movement to cities= Urbanization
But WHY is there another Agricultural Revolution?
Impact of Industrial Revolution
Beginnings of New Industries (Steel, Chemicals, Electricity, Petroleum)
New Inventions and Scientific Discoveries in response to industries
Thomas Edison (light bulb, phonograph, motion pictures)
Marie Curie (experiments with radioactivity, discovery of radium)
Albert Einstein (theory of relativity)
Louis Pasteur diseases caused by germs, developed vaccines, and pasteurization (using heat to kill germs)
2nd Industrial Revolution
: farms with fresh air, sunlight, large working area, seasonal changes to work.
: air pollution, dangerous machinery, no sunlight (after lightbulb), and the monotony of repetitive work.
Despair and hopelessness of daily lives real and inspired Charles Dickens.
Tenements (apartments) were just the worst.
Women and children now a part of the workforce.
Company boarding houses removed families from traditional structures.
Rise of leisure activities to support new urban class: theatres, dance, new restaurants. Rise of consumerism.
Rise of the middle class gave women expectations to master the domestic sphere and remain private from working world. Rise of mass produced goods.
Life in the Factory System
Eli Whitney ALSO came up with interchangeable parts, so you could replace parts and not the whole.
Henry Ford created the assembly line, so each person was responsible for ONE part.
Unfortunately, led to loss of individuality.
James Watt improved Thomas Newcomer's steam engine design in 1769.
Could now use steam for industry AND transportation
Steamship: Robert Fulton
Train: George Stephenson
All of these inventions occur in BR b/c of their vast quantities of coal, which gave BR the advantage in industrialization.
Industrial Revolution IS SO IMPORTANT. It is a MAJOR turning point in world history.
Mass production made goods, more abundance, and more easily accessible to a greater # of people than ever before.
Growth of factories caused major migration from rural to urban, and the shift Agrarian societies to industrial ones.
Industrialism also led to polluted air and water, a shift from working at home to factories, and an altered family life.
Global inequalities arise as industrial nations sought more raw materials (cotton and rubber) and more marketplaces.
This will lead to looking overseas and exploiting natural resources and disrupting industrializing in Egypt, China, and India.
Second Wave Imperialism.
Industrial Revolution's Legacy
Reaction to Economic Philosophies
Transition to Factory System
Next major improvement in ag production since the neolithic rev.
Allowed more than 1/2 farming pop'ln to move to cities for industrial jobs.
Agricultural Revolution Part II
AP World History
But wait! There's more!
Major inventions during the Industrial Revolution
: 1837, Samuel Morse. Communicate across vast distances in seconds.
: 1876, Alexander Bell, don't look at it now.
: 1879, Thomas Edison, factories can now run at night.
Internal Combustion Engine
: 1885, Gottlieb Daimlet, for cars.
: 1890s, Guglielmo Marconi, based on Edison's designs.
Factory manned by thousands of workers.
16 hour days, no safety regulations, or fair pay.
Children 6+ worked by machines (tiny hands could reach hard-to-reach areas in machines)
Women worked long hours at factory AND fulfill traditional roles.
Change from Rural Life
Free-Market Capitalism VS Socialism and Communism
Adam Smith's The Wealth of Nation in 1776 outlined the ideas of private-based economy with the government being hands off (laissez-faire).
Individuals should own the means of production and sell their goods in a free market.
Supply and Demand will naturally determine price.
Done as a response to corrupt Mercantilism during Age of Exploration.
Karl Marx, german economist and philosopher from poverty. Said Capitalism was flawed as a system and exploited its workers.
Marx and Friedrich Engles wrote The Communist Manifesto (1848) saying the working class would revolt and take control of production (Socialism), then when corrected the injustices of the factory system would no longer need instruments of power, like gov't (Communism).
US and BR
Reforms to the free market system lessened the negative impact of capitalism on workers from taking root.
Where Absolute power severely oppressed the peasant class, reform was nonexistant. There, Marxist ideas spread and were VERY popular (Lenin)
2nd half of 19th cent saw reform movements.
BR Factory Act of 1883: limited hours in a workday, ended child labor, required safer working conditions.
See the rise of labor unions to collectively bargain for better pay and working conditions.
Reforms led to a larger middle class, demonstrating social mobility.
William Wilberforce ended slavery in BR in 1807.
Women start to for suffrage groups.
Life still HARD! 50 million Europeans leave for Americas, fleeing famine, anti-semitism in RU, or poverty.
Spread of Industrial Revolution
France: delayed due to sparsely populated urban centers and you know, the French Revolution and then Napoleon's rampage across Europe.
Germany: Won't unify politically until 1871. Once it did, it quickly became producer of steel and coal.
US: by 1900 leading industrial force- Transcontinental RR, and had incoming immigrants to make a large labor force.
Japan: Meiji Restoration (1868-1912) Japan started to industrialize, using foreign experts to instruct workers and business managers.
Russia: focused on RRs (Trans-Siberian RR from Moscow to Pacific Ocean). Major producer of steel, but still had a major agricultural society... until the Communists came into power in 1917.
John Stuart Mill: social reformer who advocated utilitarianism: greatest good for greatest # of people.