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Transcript of Work Motivation
Gens9005 Group Presentation
What is work motivation?
A cognitive process which determines the direction, intensity and persistence of behaviour (performance) in the workplace.
(Kalliath et al, 2010, p. 120)
Why is it so important?
According to a research conduct by Westminster College in 2005, motivation of employees is directly associated with productivity. Motivated workers are less disruptive on the job and can achieve goals whilst creating stability.
In a survey of 20 managers and 20 employees, 50% of managers perceived the primary motivation technique as money whereas only 19% of employees rated money as their motivating factor.
It is the aim of managers to reduce this misconception and thus it is crucial to examine work motivation.
Theories of Work Motivation
In order to explain different behaviours individuals exhibit, it is necessary to examine motivation theories.
Current theories are catagorised into two different perspectives:
Process Theories - attempt to explain how motivation functions to determine people’s behaviour at work
Content Theories - attempt to specify the types of motivation that will affect people’s behaviour
Strengths of SDT:
The study of basic psychological needs is relevant across quite divergent cultures with different political, economic, and value systems.
Focus is on motivation types, rather than amount of motivation
Clear prescription for how to motivate other people to do well and thrive: namely, support their autonomy.
Limitations of SDT:
Personality-based orientations have not been included in proposed model. According to a sub-theory of SDT, Causality Orientation Theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985b), people can interpret the same situation as autonomous or controlled (Gagne & Deci, 2005).
Assumes everyone has a willingness to develop themselves and that it is the manager's task to evoke the inherent motivation (Vansteenkiste & Sheldon 2006)
Psychological needs may counterbalance each other e.g. if relatedness is increased, autonomy may decrease in team situations as individuals would have to conform
The studies have shown that autonomous motivation is more likely than controlled motivation to promote more effective and efficient employees who experience greater satisfaction at work.
Extreme care should be taken so extrinsic rewards do not control behaviour and that employees are not dependent on the rewards. Minimise extrinsic rewards and maximise employee’s intrinsic motivation.
Motivation Satisfaction Performance
According to the self-determination theory, all human beings share three basic and universal psychological needs:
Autonomy - the need to actively determine own behaviour and experience mastery at work without the influence of others
Competence - the need for efficient use of energy and effectiveness at work, and to experience having work tasks well in hand
Relatedness - the need to have meaningful relations with significant others
(Deci & Ryan, 1985a, 2000, 2002, 2008)
People’s autonomy was undermined. Extrinsic rewards are often viewed as methods of control. This leaves people feeling like pawns to the rewards (deCharms, 1968) and thus restricts people’s need for autonomy.
Tesco, a case study example
Tesco is a global retailing superstore, founded in 1919 by Jack Cohen. Since its beginnings Tesco has expanded to 2,200 stores with a workforce of over 468,000 employees working in cross function teams with the common goal of delivering quality customer service.
At Tesco, staffs are motivated by 5 main factors:
appreciation of hard work
sense of achievement
opportunity of advancement
sense of challenge and enjoyment
Philip Clarke (Tesco CEO)
In the initial study of intrinsic motivation published in the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Deci (1971) examined the effects of extrinsic rewards on people’s intrinsic motivation. Results indicated that when people received monetary rewards for doing an activity they already find interesting, they became less interested in the activity than those who had done the same activity without getting any rewards.
This experiment was replicated over and over again. By 1999, more than 120 studies confirmed the paradox that extrinsic incentives led to poorer performance.
Goh, Lek Cheng
Main theory of work motivation
Tesco acknowledged that these factors motivated their workforce, produced greater output, company loyalty, and reduced absenteeism. Tesco discovered these factors produced respect of the company and this motivated the workforce more than the sole benefit of money.
Suggests that a person’s motivation to perform tasks is determined by three main factors;
• Effort to performance (E→P) expectancy;
• Performance to outcome (P→O) expectancy;
• Valence (or importance) of the outcome.
- Aims to explain the mental processes that an individual undergoes in making choices
- Advocates the need for a direct linkage of desirable rewards with performance
- Easily applicable in work environment and intuitive
-Emphasis on expectations and perceptions of individuals
-Limited applications where rewards not directly linked to performance
Maslow's need hierarchy theory
Describes the fulfillment of certain prioritised needs as a fundamental human attribute which defines individual behavior
Needs are defined as:
- Physiological needs
- Safety needs
- Love and belonging
- Self- Actualisation
-Provides useful basis for motivation
-difficult to test empirically, thus difficult to substantiate or measure
- Oversimplfies with rigid structure
The key to self determination theory is recognising there are two different types of motivation:
1) Autonomous motivation – engaging in activities because it is interesting or doing the activity wholly volitionally
2) Controlled motivation – acting with a sense of pressure or being forced to having to engage in the actions
(Gagne and Deci, 2005)
This is important because studies have shown that the type of motivation is more important than the amount of motivation when predicting work performance.
Why is this so?
Are rewards detrimental?
No, another study has found that external factors can also increase intrinsic motivation. It has been found providing positive feedback on people’s performance enhanced intrinsic motivation for that activity relative to those who received no feedback as it satisfied their need for competence (Deci, 1971).
Implications of these studies:
Employees whose leaders provide support for autonomy, competence and relatedness experience higher levels of engagement and satisfaction at work
Tesco's extrinsic rewards that increase motivation!
Tesco does motivate their staff through rewards, however this is not through the usual pay increase. Instead rewards are given through relevant and targeted benefits, which engage their employees and support their varied lifestyles. These rewards vary from free shares in the company, pension schemes, discount cards, or healthcare. It is through the altered rewards that the staff have greater job satisfaction and are more motivated.
Motivating employees is an important task for managers. The importance of work motivation should not be underestimated as motivated employees can improve productivity, quality and output for organizations. Self-determination theory has found that focusing on the type of motivation i.e. intrinsic motivation is much more effective at achieving desired performance. By understanding the different motivation theories, Tesco is able to create satisfied, productive and profitable employees.
Wide selection of resources
Majority of research and analysis completed
Focus of research may be too specialized or unrelated
Research cannot be tailored to specific needs
Research can be tailored into specific needs
Able to gain insights not publicly available in research papers
Difficulty in gaining access to organisation
Interview or Focus group
Able to gain perspective from different organisation
Difficult to conduct meetings with several individuals at once
Tesco, a case study example
Methods that were considered when researching organisational practices include:
First hand observation
Interviews or focus groups
The case study material was obtained through investigation of online and printed references including journal articles and case studies. The information was obtained through an online journal that analysed motivation methods similar to those discussed and analysed by the group such as the Self Determination Theory. Other methods considered before the approach was decided were the Expectancy Theory and Maslow’s Theory. The Self Determination Theory was decided upon because it reflected the case study the most predominantly.