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Performance Management: Measuring Behaviors and Results

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Danielle Lagura

on 10 February 2016

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Transcript of Performance Management: Measuring Behaviors and Results

Measuring Results and Behaviors
CHAPTER 5
*Measuring Results
*Measuring Behaviors

A. MEASURING RESULTS: OVERVIEW
Chapter 5:
Measuring Results and Behaviors

Accountabilities
Objectives
Performance Standards
Accountabilities
Broad areas of a job for which employee is responsible for producing results
Objectives
Statements of important and measurable outcomes
B. Measuring Behaviors:
Overview
a. Identify Competencies
10 Characteristics of Good
Objectives
1. Specific and Clear
2. Challenging
3. Agreed Upon
4. Significant
5. Prioritized
B. Identify Indicators
Observable behaviors

Used to measure extent to which competencies are present - or not
Key Questions:
Where should each individual focus efforts?

What are the expected objectives?

How do we know how well the results were achieved?
Determining Accountabilities:
Collect information about job (Job Description)

Determine importance of task or cluster of tasks
% of employee's time spent performing task
Impact on unit's mission if performed inadequately
Consequences of error
Determining Objectives:
Purpose: to identify
Outcomes
Limited number
Highly important
When achieved
dramatic impact on overall
organization success
6. Bound By Time
7. Achievable
8. Fully Communicated
9. Flexible
10. Limited in Number
Performance Standards
Yardstick used to evaluate how well employees have achieved objectives
Defining Performance Standards
Standards refer to aspects of performance objectives, such as:
Quality
how well the objective is achieved
Quantity
how much, how many, how often, at what cost
Time
due dates, schedule, cycle times, how quickly
Standards must
include:
a verb
the desired result
a due date
some type of indicator
quality and/or
quantity
Good Performance Standards: 6 characteristics
1. Related to Position
2. Concrete, Specific, Measurable
3. Practical to Measure
4. Meaningful
5. Realistic and Achievable
6. Reviewed Regularly
Identify competencies
Identify indicators
Choose measurement system
Measurable clusters of KSAs
Knowledges
Skills
Abilities
That are critical in determining how results will be achieved
Types of Competencies
Differentiating
Distinguish between superior and average performance
Threshold
Needed to perform to minimum standard
"What are the necessary components for describing competencies?"
The necessary components
are:
Definition
Description of specific behaviors
When competency demonstrated
When competency not demonstrated
Suggestions for developing the competency
C. Choose a Measurement System
Comparative system
compares employees with each other
Absolute system
compares employees with pre-specified standard
Comparative
Systems
Alternation
Rank Order
Paired
Comparisons
Forced
Distribution
Simple
Rank Order
Rankings may not be specific enough for
Useful feedback
Protection from legal challenge
No information on relative distance between employees
Specific issues with forced distribution method
Disadvantages of Comparative Systems
Easy to explain
Straightforward
Better control for biases and errors found in absolute systems
Leniency
Severity
Central tendency
Advantages of Comparative Systems
Absolute Systems
Essays
Behavior Checklists
Critical Incidents
Graphic Rating Scales
Essays
Behavior Checklists
Critical Incidents
Graphic Rating Scales
Advantage:
to provide detailed feedback
Disadvantages:
unstructured and may lack detail
Depends on supervisor writing skill
Lack of quantitative information; difficult to use in personnel decisions
Advantage:
easy to use and understand
Disadvantages:
scale points used are often arbitrary
difficult to get detailed and useful feedback
Kinds of measurement:
1. Report of specific employees behavior
allows focus on specific behavior
very time-consuming
2. Examples of behavior
Illustrative of core competencies
Easier to use
Describes behavior desired
clear meaning for each response category
consistent interpretation by outside readers
supervisor and employee should have same understanding of rating
Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scales (BARS)
Use critical incidents as anchors
Involves multiple groups of employees in development
Identify important job elements
Describe critical incidents at various levels of performance
Check for inter-rater reliability
Graphic rating scales:
BARS improvement
Measuring Results
- Identify accountabilities
- Set objectives
- Determine standards of performance

Measuring Behaviors
- Identify competencies
- Identify indicators
- Choose measurement system
Quick Review
Several types of methods

Differ in terms of:
Practicality (time and effort)
Usefulness (quantifiable)
Measuring Performance
Full transcript