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Transcript of Buddhism
In Buddhism, the word "dharma" generally is defined as the teachings of Buddha.
BINHTHY QUAN, BRITTANY OLIVEROS, ALIAH DIZON
The Story of Buddhism
FOUR NOBLE TRUTHS
1. The truth of dukkha (suffering, anxiety)
- Physical and mental suffering associated with birth, aging, sickness and death
- Dukkha is used to present a realistic practical assessment of the human condition.
2. The truth of the origin of dukkha
- Explained as craving, desire or thirst as the origin which is conditioned by ignorance.
3. The truth of the cessation of dukkha
4. The truth of the path leading to the cessation of dukkha
THE NOBLE EIGHTFOLD PATH
The path is not linear. Areas of the path include:
right mindfulness, right intention, right view, right action, right speech, right livelihood, right effort, right concentration
THE THREE UNIVERSAL TRUTHS
1. (Anicca) Nothing is lost in the universe
2. (Dukkha) Everything changes
3. (Anatta) Law of Cause and Effect
It covers all that is included in the phrase "thought, word and deed". Generally speaking, all good and bad action constitutes Karma.
1. The Buddha is the guide
2. The Dharma is the path
3. The Sangha are the teachers along the way
1. No killing
2. No stealing
3. No sexual misconduct
4. No lying
5. No intoxicants
is, first and foremost, a practice that was uninterruptedly transmitted from master to disciple, and that goes back to the spiritual awakening of a man named Siddhartha Gautama - The Buddha- 2500 years ago in India.
The parents of either side or friends introduce a couple in confidence. When the male finds a suitable partner, he would send a friend to the girl’s home to present a gift of liquor or wine. Carrying a white silk scarf called khada, he observes the family’s inclination towards the proposal.
The bride wears a dress called Bhaku. A dress resembling a full-length sarong and sleeved blouse, Hanju. It is made of Chinese silk called khichen. A khau is worn which is made of large precious stones. Heavy, gold jewelry would adorn her arms.
The man also wears a Bhaku with sleeves with a waistcoat called Lajha. A cap and sash is often worn.
The Awakened One. One who has reached the Utmost, Right, and Equal Enlightenment.
(from Budh-, to awaken)
It is the second gem of the three jewels -- Buddha, dharma, sangha. The word often is defined as "the teachings of the Buddha
a law, rule, method, norm
literally means action or doing.
Emphasizes enlightenment by means of meditation and direct, intuitive insights.
SYMBOLS FOR THE BUDDHA
Eight Spoked Wheel – 'Dharmachakra' (Sanskrit)
Symbolizes the Buddha’s turning the Wheel of Truth or Law (dharma=truth/law, chakra=wheel)
The Dharmachakra has eight spokes, symbolising the Eight-fold Noble Path.
The 3 swirling segments in centre represent the Buddha, Dharma (the teachings) and Sangha (the spiritual community).
Refers to the tree under which the Buddha achieved enlightenment
Footprints of the Buddha symbolize the physical presence of the Enlightened One.
both a reference to Siddharta Gautama's royal ancestry and to the idea of spiritual kingship - enlightenment as ruler of the spiritual world.
Begging Bowl and a Lion
refers to the the story that shortly before the Buddha reached enlightenment, where a young woman had offered him
associated with regality, strength and power
In Buddhism, death marks the transition from this life to the next for the deceased. It is regarded as a major religious occasion. It marks the transition from life, death and rebirth.
Cremation is a common practice, another practice that is not so common is mummification. Preserved bodies would be painted and decorated with gold.
Buddha was reluctant to accept images of himself, as he did not like to be recognized as a person.
THE EIGHT AUSPICIOUS SYMBOLS
1. Umbrella or parasol (chhatra) embodies notions of wealth and royalty.
2. Golden Fish (matsya) originally symbolic of the rivers Ganges and Yamun, but came to represent good fortune in general.
3. Treasure Vase (bumpa) is a sign of the inexhaustible riches available in the Buddhist teachings, but also symbolizes long life, wealth, prosperity, and all the benefits of the world.
4. Lotus (padma)
5. Conch (shankha) also used as a horn, symbolizes the deep, far reaching and melodious sound of the teachings.
6. Auspicious or Endless Knot (shrivatsa) symbolizes the nature of reality where everything is connected and only exists as part of a web of karma and its effect.
Also, it represents the illusory character of time, and long life as it is endless.
7. Victory Banner (dhvaja) symbolizes the victory of the Buddha's teachings over death, ignorance, disharmony and all the negativity of this world, and victory over.
8. Dharma-Wheel (Dharmachakra) represents the Buddhist teachings.
is a well-know good-luck symbol from India.
In Sanskrit, swastika means "conducive to well-being".
In the Buddhist tradition, the swastika symbolizes the feet or footprints of the Buddha and is often used to mark the beginning of texts.
Modern Tibetan Buddhism uses it as a clothing decoration.
Considered a personal and individual concern, not seen as a religious duty. Buddhist views on marriage are very liberal. The Buddhism religion does not ask for the production of children in order to keep family names alive, it allows for individual freedom and independence to decide their path in life. Buddhist monks choose celibacy, which is the voluntary state of being unmarried and sexually inactive.
FESTIVALS AND CELEBRATIONS
Celebrates the birth of Siddhartha Gautama
In some countries it is also celebrated as the day of his enlightenment and death.
Some people spend the say in meditation and reflection.
Marks the beginning of the Buddha’s teaching.
Shows thanks to Buddha and other enlightened teachers that shared their knowledge.
ASALHA PUJA (DHARMA DAY)
LOCATIONS OF PRACTICE:
Buddhist temples, stupas (similar to temples), monasteries (monks reside) and Dharma centers (includes the community, rather than monks and nuns).
PAST AND PRESENT LEADERS
: mainly worship monks, have the belief that only monks can reach enlightenment, don't believe that those in heaven can help others reach enlightenment.
: More open minded to people aside from monks to reach enlightenment, mix of different elements of cultures, accepting to other Buddhas.
: developed later on (Tibet, Mongolia, bhutan and Nepal), has multiple elements from local religion , various spiritual disciplines (chant, meditate, use objects in prayer).
NUMBER OF FOLLOWERS
The founder was born around the year 400BCE and 35 years later he began teaching.
COUNTRY OF ORIGIN:
-Siddhartha Gautama was a prince.
-At a young age, a wise men predicted two possible paths Gautama may take.
-the three sightings lead to him becoming the Buddha, suffering (poverty and starvation) ,old age and death.
-Fourth sighting (old man at peace).
- journey of seeking enlightenment.
Thich Nhat Hanh
Dharma Master Cheng Yen
General (Dharma instructors/teachers)
WORSHIP ROUTINES + PRAYERS
- involves quieting the mind, encourages
focus(flame, statue, mandala, mantra chant), removes distractions, release stress and move towards a more mindful state .
Worshiping- Can take place at temples,homes shrines,or monasteries. Actions involved are bowing one's head to the floor while kneeling. During this action offerings are made to the three jewels.
Thich Nhat Hanh
Dharma Master Cheng Ye
Dharma Instructors/ teachers
*Varies amongst different sections of Buddhism
ex) In Theravadin Buddhism , includes the child being blessed
-closing ceremony involves melting wax of a candles
into a bowl (represents unity).
Buddhist Temples, shrines & monasteries:
-The structure and shapes included symbolizes the five elements of the faith (sky,water, air and earth).
-They also include arches, curves, bells, gongs and gardens.
: Holds the same purpose but has a round,sphere like structure.
Buddhists wear orange-yellow coloured robes known as a "civara". Wearing a civara is the first of a monk's four traditional requirements. The robes are made of various thicknesses for both summer and winter.
Buddhists do not have a specific dress code except for the monks who follow a specified dress code of yellow or orange robes. The saffron was worn dating back centuries. Orange was chosen mainly because of the dye available at the time.
Orange is the color of choice for Theravada Buddhist followers in Southeast Asia, as opposed to a maroon color for Tibetan monks. The robes themselves are meant to symbolize simplicity and detachment of materialism.
A monk’s hair is shaved off so to symbolize simplicity, dedication and to remove the risk of vanity. It is said that one of the first things that the prince who was to become Buddha shaved off his hair and beard and put on the yellow cloth after having left the palace. This act expresses the Buddhist monk's dedication and devotion to the Holy life. For other followers who are not necessarily monks, they are not required to shave their heads.
AS OF MARCH 2013
Mahayana- Lotus Sutras
Theravada- The Tripitakas
One fundamental belief of Buddhism is often referred to as reincarnation, the concept that people are reborn after death. Individuals go through the cycles of birth, living, death and rebirth. In rebirth, a person does not necessarily return to Earth as the same entity. After continuous cycles, the person releases their attachment and is attained to Nirvana, or state of liberation and freedom from suffering.
THE PURPOSE OF LIFE
In Buddhism, it is believed that the primary purpose of life is to end suffering. The Buddha taught that humans suffer due to desire for things that do not give lasting happiness. By recognizing the impermanence of all things and freeing oneself from attachment, suffering is lessened and the cycle of rebirth ends.
Salvation is the act of saving or protecting from harm. Siddhartha Gautama concluded that suffering of all kinds is an inescapable part of life. Suffering, omnipresent and endemic, is the hell in which humanity must escape from. Following the Noble Eightfold Paths will lead you to salvation.
The Buddhist term that means "blowing out" or "extinguishing" and refers to the process of the extinction of the fires of attachment, and ignorance. When these fires are extinguished, suffering ends and one is released from rebirth.
This experiences involve these qualities: free from negativity, has peace, non reactivity and a transformed mind.
Our life and its events are not caused by forced like heaven and God, but are caused by our past karma. Destiny is a direct result of an individual's previous life. Cause and effect cycles throughout our lifetime and after. Accidentalism and fatalism are also factors in determining events in life.
" The Buddha described the universe being destroyed and then re-evolving into its present form over a period of countless millions of years. The first life formed on the surface of the water and again, over countless millions of years evolved from simple into complex organisms. Eventually, the universe is again destroyed and another arises in its place. All these processes are without beginning or end, and are set in motion by natural causes. Our present universe merely occupies one slot in this beginning-less and endless sequence of time. "
- monks and nuns carried on the Buddha's teachings for future generations.
<-modern day followers