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Conceptual Physics Ch. 17

The Atomic Nature of Matter

Johnathan Tate

on 25 January 2012

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Transcript of Conceptual Physics Ch. 17

Chapter 17
The Atomic Nature of Matter What are Atoms? Smallest particle of all matter that has the properties of an Element
Building blocks of matter More on Atoms Atoms are small
1agstrom or 0.1nm
Invisible to visible light
Images produced by electron microsope
More atoms in 1g of water than drops of
water in all the rivers and lakes of the world
Atoms are Recyclable
Atoms migrate
Atoms are Old
Old as the Sun and the Earth
History of the atom Democritus 400BC
1st recorded mention of atom
Opposed Aristotle 350BC
First recorded scientist
Stated matter was composed of
Earth, Fire, Wind, Water John Dalton 1803 AD
Concluded from observations and experiments:
-Atoms are tiny, hard balls
-Most fundamental building block of nature
-Each element differed from others
in mass and had its own atoms
http://www.absorblearning.com/chemistry/demo/units/fullscreen.html?src=media/LR301301a.swf&title=undefined&w=250&h=180 About:
8 microns
80000 angstroms 1 angstrom
0.0000001mm Elements J.J. Thomson 1897
-Cathode Ray Tube Experiment
-Discovered the electron
-Plum pudding model http://www.absorblearning.com/chemistry/demo/units/fullscreen.html?src=media/LR301301b.swf&title=undefined&w=500&h=260
Next Time Question 1 Suppose you could add or subtract protons from oxygen nuclei. To turn oxygen into a gas that would glow red when an electric current flows through it, would you add or subtract protons? How many?
Oops! Those “harmless” Germanium Capsules you just swallowed may have an extra proton in each nucleus. Is this good news or bad news? Why?
Next Time Question 2 Ernest Rutherford 1909
Gold Foil Experiment
Discovers Atomic Nucleus and Proton
Planetary model of the atom http://www.absorblearning.com/chemistry/demo/units/fullscreen.html?src=media/LR301301d.swf&title=undefined&w=500&h=300 Albert Einstein 1905
Explains Brownian Motion Murray Gell-Mann 1964
Predicted the existence of quarks
35 Xenon Atoms
1989 Don Eidler IBM Scanning Tunneling Microscope Big Bang:
-Hydrogen and Helium

Stars: Element factories
-Elements from H-Fe

-Elements from Co-U Where do elements come from? How do we get "Stuff" from elements? Molecules 2 or more elements bonded together
(Covalent Bond)
Compounds 2 or more Types of elements bonded together
(Covalent or Ionic Bond)
What’s the difference between
an atom and an element? Elements: Smallest pure substance
Made of atoms of the same kind
Solid, Liquid, Gas at room temp
About 120 known today
92 Naturally Occuring Neils Bohr 1913 -Revised Rutherford’s model of the Atom
-Electrons orbiting fixed orbits http://www.absorblearning.com/chemistry/demo/units/fullscreen.html?src=media/LR301301f.swf&title=undefined&w=400&h=290 What are Quarks? The material that make the nucleons
-Up +2/3 charge , Down -1/3 charge
-Some combo makes up each nucleon
Very rare to be alone as 1 quark Periodic Table of Elements
Dmitri Mendeleev 1869
Major Developer How are they organized? Iso_huh? Isotopes
Atoms of the same element, but with different numbers of neutrons
An atom can have too many or too few neutron
Is unstable
Nucleus The Atom is mostly empty space (void)
Number of Protons identifies the atom
Protons are identical
Nucleons are made of Quarks
The Electron

-Negatively charged
-1800 times less massive than Proton and Neutrons
-Forms a cloud of negative charge around the nucleus
-Causes repulsive force between atoms
Robert Brown Found that:
Grains under microscope jiggled around
Same result with dust particles and soot
Brownian motion is perpetual jiggling of particles suspended in a liquid
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