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The Impact of Leadership on Student Outcomes: An Analysis of
Transcript of The Impact of Leadership on Student Outcomes: An Analysis of
Claire A. Lloyd
Kenneth J. Rowe
Research Design: The methodology involved an analysis of findings from 27 published studies of the relationship between leadership and student outcomes.
The comparisons between transformational and instructional leadership and between the five leadership dimensions suggested that the more leaders focus their relationships, their work, and their learning on the core business of teaching and learning, the greater their influence on student outcomes.
The Impact of Leadership on Student Outcomes: An Analysis of the Differential Effects of Leadership Types
Of this study was to examine the relative impact of different types of leadership on students’ academic and nonacademic outcomes.
Goals provide a sense of purpose and priority in an environment where a multitude of tasks can seem equally important and overwhelming.
Clear goals focus attention and effort and enable individuals, groups, and organizations to use feedback to regulate their performance.
The first meta- analysis, including 22 of the 27 studies, involved a comparison of the effects of transformational and instructional leadership on student outcomes.
meta-analysis involved a comparison of the effects of five inductively derived sets of leadership practices on student outcomes.
Twelve of the studies contributed to this second analysis.
The first meta-analysis indicated that the average effect of instructional leadership on student outcomes was three to four times that of transformational leadership.
5 sets leadership practices or dimensions:
1. establishing goals expectations;
4. evaluating teaching and the curriculum; pro- moting
5. participating in teacher learning and development, and ensuring an orderly and supportive environment.
The Second meta-analysis
Revealed strong average effects for the leadership dimension involving promoting and participating in teacher learning and development and moderate effects for the dimensions concerned with goal setting and planning, coordinating, and evaluating teaching and the curriculum.
Implication on practice
The article concludes with a discussion of the need for leadership research and practice to be more closely linked to the evidence on effective teaching and effective teacher learning.
Such alignment could increase the impact of school leadership on student outcomes even further.
leadership; principal; leadership theory; achievement; outcomes; meta-analysis
Policy Makers wanted evidence on
direct and indirect effects of leadership on students outcomes
Reduction in disparities educational achievement
Social and Ethic groups
Belief school leaders play a vital role in doing so.
Most quantitative research conceptualized that leadership and students outcomes was indirect and that principal only developed the conditions for the teachers to make the difference.
Providing teachers with the conditions and opportunities make more of an impact on student outcomes
Contradiction between evidence and policy makers
he typical conclusion drawn by quantitative leadership researchers is that school leaders have small and indirect effects on student outcomes that are essentially mediated by teachers (Hallinger & Heck, 1998).
Public expectations reflect attribution bias romantic view of leadership (Meindl, 1998)?
quantitative researchers systematically underestimate the impact of leadership through research designs and assessment tools
The paper looked at different leadership types.
Instead of the discussion on
Qualitative and Quantitative Evidence
Early 70's and 80's Poor Urban
These schools typically had strong instructional leadership, including a learning climate free of disruption, a system of clear teaching objectives, and high teacher expectations for students.
Engage with staff in ways that inspired new levels of energy, commitment, and moral purpose (Burns, 1978).
Energy and commitment vision transformed the organization by developing its capacity to work collaboratively to overcome challenges and reach ambitious goals.
Instructional leadership on student outcomes
“The size of the effects that principals indirectly contribute toward student learning, though statistically significant is also quite small” (Hallinger, 2005, p. 229).
Although it suggests that the impact of instructional leadership on student outcomes is notably greater than that of transformational leadership.
had a small indirect influence on academic or social student outcomes.
The authors concluded that an “integrated”
leadership, incorporating a strong capacity for developing shared instructional leadership
combined with qualities associated with transformational leadership,
was the best predictor of the intellectual quality of student work in both math and social studies.
How Leadership Influences Student Learning”
second analysis designed to understand the impact of specific sets of leadership practices, called leadership dimensions.
In goal setting, effective leadership involves not only determining the goal content (task focus) but doing so in a manner that enables staff to understand and become committed to the goal (relationships).
What works, is careful integration of staff considerations with task requirements.
Effective leaders do not get the relationships right and then tackle the educational challenges—they incorporate both sets of constraints into their problem solving.
Establishing goals and expectations certainly as an educationally significant effect.
focusing and coordinating the work of teachers and, in some cases, parents.
emphasis on clear acade- mic and learning goals (Bamburg & Andrews, 1991; Brewer, 1993; Heck et al., 1991).
If goals are to function as influential coordinating mechanisms, they need to be embedded in school and classroom routines and procedures (Robinson, 2001).
Successful leadership influences teachingand learning both through face-to-face relationships and by structuring the way that teachers do their work (Ogawa & Bossert, 1995).
Need for Research on
What changers leaders encourages and promote
There is a significant gulf between classroom practices that are “changed” and practices that actually lead to greater pupil learning; the potency of leadership for increasing student learning hinges on the specific classroom practices that leaders stimulate, encourage and promote. (p. 223)
Such leadership involves the determined pursuit of clear goals, which are understood by and attractive to those who pursue them.
Goal setting is a powerful leadership tool in the quest for improving valued student outcomes because it signals to staff that even though everything is important, some activities and outcomes are more important than others.
Without clear goals, staff effort and initiatives can be dissipated in multiple agendas and conflicting priori- ties, which, over time, can produce burnout, cynicism, and disengagement.
Leadership activity is about securing resources that are aligned with instructional purposes, rather than leadership skill in securing resources
Planning, coordinating, and evaluating teaching and the curriculum
moderate impact on student outcomes
School leaders and staff work together to review and improve teaching—an idea captured by that of shared instructional leadership (Heck et al., 1990; Heck et al., 1991; Marks & Printy, 2003).
Teachers in such schools reported that their leaders set and adhered to clear performance standards for teaching (Andrews & Soder, 1987; Bamburg & Andrews, 1991) and made regular classroom observations that helped them improve their teaching (Bamburg & Andrews, 1991; Heck, 1992; Heck et al., 1990).
Promoting and participating in teacher learning and development.
promoting and participating because more is involved than just supporting or sponsoring other staff in their learning.
The leader participates in the learning as leader, learner, or both.
The contexts for such learning are both formal (staff meetings and professional development) and informal (discussions about specific teaching problems).
The principal is also more likely to be seen by staff as a source of
instructional advice, which suggests that they are both more accessible and more knowledgeable about instructional matters
Ensuring an orderly and supportive environment.
n an orderly environment, teachers can focus on teaching and students can focus on learning.
consistently enforced social expectations and discipline codes (Heck et al., 1991).
An orderly and supportive environment is also one in which staff conflict is quickly and effectively addressed. In one study, principal ability to iden- tify and resolve conflict, rather than allow it to fester, was strongly associated with student achievement in mathematics (Eberts & Stone, 1986).
A second variable, measuring differences between teacher and principal perceptions of the latter’s ability to identify and resolve conflict, discriminated even more strongly between higher and lower performing schools.
building collegial teams, a loyal and cohesive staff, and sharing an
focusing relationships on some very
specific pedagogical work
leadership practices involved are better captured by measures of instructional leadership than of transformational leadership.
Their analysis of leadership impact on pedagogical quality and student outcomes employed the combined integrated leadership measure
that is most strongly associated with positive student outcomes is that of
promoting and participating in teacher learning and development.
goal setting should play an important part in determining the teacher learning agenda.
Leaders’ involvement in teacher learning provides them with a deep understanding of the conditions required to enable staff to make and sustain the changes required for improved outcomes.
It is the responsibility of leaders at all levels of the system to create those conditions.
The Impact of Leadership on Student Outcomes: An Analysis of the Differential Effects of Leadership Types
Educational Administration Quarterly 2008 44: 635 originally published online 23
Viviane M. J. Robinson, PhD
Claire A. Lloyd is elementary school teacher in Wales.
Kenneth J. Rowe, PhD, is Director of Rowe Research & Consulting Services, and former Research Director of the Learning Processes research program at the Australian Council for Educational Research.