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The Great Chilean Earthquake 1960
Transcript of The Great Chilean Earthquake 1960
Measures of priority
Scientists can usually predict where and when an earthquake will take place. Seismographs can typically tell when seismic waves have already begun. This can happen minutes to days before the earthquake. Another thing you can do to prevent damage from the earthquake is to renovate or build your house to withstand the ground shakes that takes place during an earthquake. Lastly, by attending disaster relief training it can help prevent lives being lost and it can reduce the amount of injuries that occur.
The Valdivia earthquake triggered the forming of a tsunami straight after. The tsunami raced across the pacific ocean afftecting mainly Hilo, Hawaii (although it did affect a total of 8 countries/islands). The waves reached an enormous 25m high. 10,000km from the epicenter, there were waves 10.7m high. Around 6,000 people died in the tsunami alone, there were many people injured therefore it was difficult to calculate the final amount. Roughly 2.8 billion dollars was spent on the repair of the continents. Even though the tsunami was an aftershock of the earthquake, it triggered many landslides as a result.
The Great Chilean
- Earthquake 1960 -
The Valdivia Earthquake, more commonly known as the Great Chilean Earthquake is a megathrust earthquake. It was recorded as the largest earthquake of the 20th century, being rated as a 9.5 on the Richter scale. This earthquake was the result of the Nazca plate and the South American Plate releasing the mechanical stress between the plate boundaries. This happened on the Peru- Chile Trench on the western border of South America. The rupture zone was 800km long and the rupture velocity was 3.5km per second.
Short term effects
Many different short term effects took place after and during the earthquake itself. Firstly, they were many landslides and aftershocks that occurred in the surrounding land, buildings collapsed, tsunami's destroyed cities and a volcano erupted.
Transport and communication were disrupted as well as water pipes. This led to contaminated water throughout the cities. Shops and businesses were destroyed. About 2 million people were left homeless (27% of the population), 1,600 people died and 3,000 people where lucky to survive with injuries.
Long term effects
Like short term effects, there were many long term effects caused by the earthquake and the aftershocks. Firstly, there was a major damage in the local economy. Buildings and infastructures such as dams and roads had to be rebuilt at huge costs. Crops and livestock were wiped out which led to starvation. Dead bodies were left unattended which led to diseases and infections. Fresh water was not available because of the intense damage left by the earthquake. This caused a lot of the population to undergo dehyration and many illnesses.
The earthquake deepended rivers and formed wetlands, changing the geography of Chile as we know it. All of this led to the major decline in tourism as people were too scared to visit.
• Long-term economic consequences of the 1960 Chile earthquake (n.d) Retrieved from http://www.webmeets.com/files/papers/lacea-lames/2011/767/Paper_11Mayl2011.pdf
• Chile Earthquake of 1960 (n.d) Retrieved from http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/1421130/Chile-earthquake-of-1960
• 1960 Valdivia earthquake (n.d) Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1960_Valdivia_earthquake
• The Largest Earthquake in the world (n.d) Retrieved from http://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/world/events/1960_05_22.php
• 1960 Chile Earthquake was a 9.5 Megathrust earthquake (n.d) Retrieved from http://www.kids-fun-science.com/1960-chile-earthquake.html
• Wikipedia. (2014). Nazca Plate. [Online image]. Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nazca_Plate
• Surviving a Tsunami (1999). [Online image]. Retrieved from http://pubs.usgs.gov/circ/c1187/