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UNFCCC Youth: 3) Cooperation and Contention

In Module 3 we'll look at the efforts between Bali and Doha to create a new better binding treaty. A whole variety of issues suddenly become very important and contentious. Young people are there to react, lobby, come up with solutions and protest

ukycc international

on 20 June 2013

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Transcript of UNFCCC Youth: 3) Cooperation and Contention

United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
Sometimes called "The Convention"
Bali Action Plan
Article 6
1.5C Review
Shared Vision
Gigatonne Gap
Tech Transfer
Capacity Building
1.5C To Stay Alive
Economic and Social Consequences of Response Measures
G77 (+China)
African Group
Umbrella Group
Gender & Women
Agreed in 1992
UN Security
Indigenous Peoples
Local Governments
Comms WG
Actions WG
Policy WG
BL Team
Interventions WG
Zero Emissions
Green House Gasses (Like CO2)
Does this through agreeing 26 "Articles" (Art#) which establishes:
- Setting out definitions (Art1), Objectives (Art2) and Principles (Art3)
- That Parties (countries) will attempt to reduce their GHGs (Art4), research Climate Change (Art5),
educate train and raise public awareness (Art6),
- How countries will negotiate and agree on things (Art7, 13-26)
- Sets up permanent bodies of the UNFCCC the SBSTA (Art9) and SBI (Art10),
- Sets up a Secretariat (Art8) to facilitate things, a financial mechanism (Art11) and communication channels (Art12)
Subsidary Body for Implementation (Art10)
Parties negotiate in this Body to work towards delivering
the Articles and agreements of the original UNFCCC convention
and subsequent decisions.
"Annex" is tagged on the end of the Convention and lists countries in different categories. You will often hear the phrase "The Annex I countries must do this", or "Because X is a Non-Annex I country, they have a lot to gain from Y"
Annex I = Industrialised Countries in 1992 (i.e. Western World + post-Soviet countries)
Annex II = Annex I countries who should provide finance (i.e. Western World)
Annex B = Annex I countries who agreed to reduce emissions in the Kyoto Protocol in 1997
Non-Annex I = "Developing" Countries in 1992
Want a closer look?
There are 2 big parts of the SBI that youth lobby on: Access and Article 6
Young people should have a voice in the discussions
at the UN climate negotiations. But are 2-minute
speeches and approved actions enough?
This is a key issue for young people, and a group of
dedicated youth spend their time working with other
civil society groups to lobby on this SBI issue.
Article 6 is about Education for Sustainable Development, Participation in countrie's decisions, Training and Public Awareness. Young people have a big stake in the Article 6 negotiations.
Last year in Bonn we helped change the rules for how suggestions are put forward for Article 6: Countries agreed to pay for workshops in Africa and Small Islands to gather input and also consider the input of youth.
Following this in Cancun young people achieved a big policy win. Through policy statements, tireless lobbying and direct pressure they secured a whole page of UN policy changes (out of 3 pages!) that became UN decisions.
The Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice meets in parallel to SBI. They try not to get involved in political discussion, but instead talk about scientific reports and clarify things for the negotiators.
Sebastien Duyck from France makes a statement in Cancun on behalf of (nearly) all civil society groups- suggesting some practical ways to move forward on access.
Adriana, the Dominican Republic negotiator on Article 6 explains her role and the role of youth in the successful Cancun decision
Katie Scales from the UK and Ben Vanpeperstraete from Belgium talk about the successful Article 6 decision in Cancun
Severn Suzuki from Canada delivers a speech that makes the UN stop and listen to youth
Emma Moon from New Zealand tells SBSTA they need to define the difference between "forest" and "plantation"
At a Bonn Intersessional in 2010 during a SBSTA negotiation, oil-exporting countries like Saudi Arabia and Oman blocked a scientific reivew of the evidence behind setting 1.5C as a maximum temperature rise goal. Countries from the Global South and Small Islands were outraged at this and called on young people to take a stand for science and for fairness. The 1.5 Policy group work on this issue.
Conference of the Parties
Remember "Parties" basically translates as "Countries". The COP usually only meets once a year in November/December, and is a chance for Government Ministers to get together and vote on things their negotiators have been preparing all year. The COP is the only body that can pass anything that is binding, whether that be binding under the original Convention or any other protocol. If other bodies make a decision, it must be passed onto a COP. Durban will be the 17th COP since 1992, so it's called "COP17".
COP Decisions
COP Decisions are written like this: 1/CP.1 means the first decision taken at COP1. e.g:
1/CP.1 is the Berlin Mandate
1/CP.13 is the Bali Action Plan
2/CP.15 "takes note" of the Copenhagen Accord
1/CP.16 is the Cancun Agreements
Danny Hutley from the UK, reports from the disasterous blocking of 1.5C Review and the international youth make a stand
The Ad-Hoc Group on the Berlin Mandate
The Berlin Mandate set out a path for countries to agree a binding climate treaty within 2 years. The AGBM was a set of negotiations tasked with doing this, and it's work ceased in 1997 when the Kyoto Protocol was decided
Kyoto Protocol
Named after the city where it was decided at COP3, the Kyoto Protocol COMMITTED countries to reducing GHGs (instead of the Convention encouraging them to).
Parties who signed up to KP set their own reduction targets and then have to reduce their emissions through National strategies and "flexible mechanisms" like trading emissions.
I <3 KP
Marrakesh Accords
These were decided in 2001 and clarify the rules of the KP
Conference of the Meeting of Parties
This negotiating body is made up of ministers like the COP, but only has a mandate to make decisions about the Kyoto Protocol. They meet at the same time as COPs, so meetings are usually called "COP17/CMP7".
Adhoc Working Group on the Kyoto Protocol
This is the negotiating body discussed the KP. They worked throughout the year to come to agreements to suggest to the CMP and COP.

The CMP decided at COP17 (decision 1/CMP.7) to aim for the 'delivery of results' by the end of COP18/CMP7.
So in other words AWG-KP in its current form should end in Doha.
Cecila Panjit from Nepal delivers a statement to the UN about the KP
LULUCF Logging Loopholes
Flexible Mechanisms
The KP commits Annex I countries to reducing emissions. It lets them do this through actual reductions but also through market-based mechanisms.
Emissions Trading Scheme
A central authority (e.g. a government/the EU) sets a limit (cap)
to the amount of carbon allowed, then companies are allowed
to trade "carbon credits" under this cap.
Clean Development Mechanism
Allows countries who emit a lot of GHGs to offset this by investing in clean energy projects in developing countries.
Joint Implementation
Allows industrialised countries to carry out emission-reduction projects in another industrialised country and count it as their own reduction in emissions
Selling our Future?
Do these flexible market mechanisms really work? Or do they
just encourage countries to hide their emissions with creative
accounting? Is it right to reduce big issues like our planet and
our future to just a matter of markets and money?
Young people in Cancun set up a Carbon Market to show
negotiators and the press a horrible vision of the future
The Cancun Agreements
The Copenhagen Accord
Quantified Emission Limitation and Reduction Objectives
= the Annex I commitments to reduce their GHGs
Land Use, Land Use Change, and Forestry
One of the hardest acronyms to remember!
This means that Annex I countries can use any changes is land use to reduce their emissions. e.g. they could plant a forest, or protect a forest. This only applies to Annex I forests! However this is full of loopholes...
So richer countries want to create loopholes in LULUCF to hide about 400 miilion tonnes of their emissions in. This would lead to major deviation from emissions targets. We need richer countries to account for all of their emissions. Watch the videos to see how young people have campaigned on this difficult issue.
Danny Hutley from the UK reports on the Youth action "Welcome to Loophole Land" in Bonn 2010
The International Youth protest the LULUCF Loopholes in Cancun
International Youth set up a Carbon Market at the UN to sell our planet, our air and our future
The Second Commitment Period to the Kyoto Protocol
The First KP Commitment Period runs from 2008-2012. It was expected that countries would fulfil their obligations and commit emissions reduction targets for a second commitment period from 2012. However Japan, Russia, Canada and others want to kill the KP.
KP may not be perfect, but it's all we've got: it's the worlds only binding climate treaty and the only thing there to protect our future. If countries kill the KP beyond 2012 by not signing up to a second commitment period, then this is bad news.
It may not be perfect, but we love the KP and we think Parties should love the KP too. But true love needs commitment: and young people are pushing for Parties to show that commitment this year.
Anna from Italy asks the chair of the AWG-KP (John) to marry her in a suprise speach to the UN in Bonn 2010
Young people hold a wedding of Annex I Parties to the KP in Bonn 2010
Conference of the Whole
Yes, it actually existed once.
I'm not lying

Here is a picture of a cow
The chair of the SBI accepts Article 6. Thanks in part to the Youth efforts a UN decision was made in 90 minutes, which has never been done before. The chair had previously sarcastically commented that if it happens, he would give negotiators "golden stars", so when it did happen we made some golden stars for him to give out.
Under the REDD Carpet?
Fair Finance?
World Bank- Hands off!
Youth in the Text
Our Future Capacity
Tech TransFAIR?
At COP15 2009, when countries failed to come to an agreement, the USA, along with other countries, put forward this accord. It promises money to developing countries but does not bind developed countries to emissions targets and lets them choose their own. Although very unpopular and not adopted by the UNFCCC, the Copenhagen Accord received 140 signatures. It was later revealed that many of the developing country signatories were pressured into signing the Accord in order to get fast money from the USA.
The USA continues to push for an agreement like the Copenhagen Accord, and the Cancun agreements largely delivered on that.
At COP16 in 2010, all countries came to an agreement except Bolivia. However the chair passed the decision anyway as the Cancun Agreements. The Cancun agreements make some small progress in all areas of the LCA, but lack detail and do not address reducing emissions.
After Cancun, the UKYCC team attempted to explain the negotiations using handpuppets. The video went viral with over 11,000 hits; even the Executive Secretary of the UNFCCC Christina Figueres called it "too fabulous"
At COP13 in Bali, delegates agreed on a "Road Map" that would take them to a global binding climate treaty to replace the KP. This was due to be delivered at COP15 in Copenhagen, but is way overdue. They decided that any new deal must tackle: A Shared Vision, Mitigation, Developing Country Forests (REDD), Adaptation, Technology Transfer, Capacity Building and Finance.
This would all be negotiated under the name LCA, "Long-term Coorporative Action"
Danny Hutley from the UK reports from Bonn 2010. With the helps of friends he explains the importance of Civil Society involvement, and finishes with footage of the infamous clap in Bali that pressured the USA to agree to the Bali Action Plan.
Ad Hoc Working Group on Long-term Cooporative Action
Throughout the year, this negotiating group sits in sessions parallel to the AWG-KP. It discusses progress on the Bali Action Plan towards a future global binding treaty. The AWG-LCA has several arguments to solve and sometimes these different policy areas split off into Contact Groups to negotiate and come back to the AWG-LCA
During Bonn 2009, Najit from Indonesia tells the negotiators in the AWG-LCA to strip down to their underwear and jump in the waterfall.
Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degredation
This policy area looks at reducing emissions by protecting Non-Annex I forests (i.e. developing country forests). It proposes Market mechanisms to do this, where developing countries are rewarded with funds when they protect their forests.
The main people pushing a deal on REDD+ are richer countries, the World Bank and Big Business. There is a lot of potential financial gain out of REDD+. But where does that leave the Indigenous People who live in the forests? Will their homes be sold to the highest bidder in "sustainable management schemes"? REDD+ is very controversial and angers many Indigenous people and young people
REDD+ builds on REDD. As well as protecting forests, it also allows for Forest conservation, sustainable forest management and planting new forests as a means of reducing emissions. The same market mechanisms apply.
A report from the forests of the Democratic Republic of Congo looks at the potential gains and threats of a REDD+ scheme in their area
Nairobi Work Programme
This programme aims to use SBSTA to advise governments (especially developing country governments) on the impact, vulnerability and adaptation to climate change. It then gives them advice on the best way to approah climate change policies in their own countries.
This area of negotiations looks at how countries with high climate impacts can be supported.
National Adaptation Programme of Action
These are plans to support the Least Developed Countries. They look at current grass-roots actions and build on them to produce regional and national policies.
There will need to be a large transfer of money from developed to developing countries to fund adaptation and mitigation efforts. In this group, negotiators focus on how much is needed, where it comes from and whether it should be in loans, aid or investment in business.
The Global Environment Facility
This is where most of the global climate money travels through. It was founded as part of the World Bank, became seperate in 1994, but the World Bank reamins it's trustee. Although developing countries get more of a say in it than the World Bank, it has been accused of mainly financing climate projects that benefit rich countries who are it's main donors.
The Green Climate Fund, agreed at COP16 in Cancun aims to provide $100bn funding to developing countries by 2020. It is run seperately from the World Bank by a committee of 25 developing countries vs. 15 developed countries. However the World Bank remains it's trustee.
The Special Climate Change Fund was set up in 2001 and started work in 2004. It was meant to be reviewed in 2009 but not one country bothered to submit it's views on the SCCF. So nobody is certain of its future.
The Least Developed Countries Fund is controlled by the GEF and provides money to developing countries to fund their NAPAs
Adaptation Fund. 2% of CDM (Clean Development Mechanism, see "flexible mechanisms" under Kyoto Protcol) profits go into this fund.
It's all very well giving money out to poorer countries- but we can't let rich countries just buy their way out of responsibility. There is also a danger that richer countries will give out loans and increase the debt of poorer countries. Lastly, in 2010 many innovative ways for reaching $100bn per year by 2020 were outlined by a committee chaired by UN Seccretary General Ban Ki Moon. However these have been largely ignored so far. Poor Ban...
Young people warn negotiators in Bonn 2010 not to fall into the trap of giving out loans
The World Bank is a controversial Trustee of many of these Funds. It has a very bad history of lending lots of money to big pollutors and giving developing countries no say in its governance. Some people argue it's the only institution with the capacity to handle big sums of money, but the Green Climate Fund has shown it's possible to do things another way. Many people want the World Bank out of climate finance fullstop, not as a trustee, not as an owner, and no seat at the table.
The Technology Transfer strand of LCA looks at how everyone can most benefit from the development of new renewable technologies. At the moment most technologies are developed in richer countries and then poorer countries have to pay high prices on patented products to use them. Cancun established a Tech Transfer board to look into these issues, but richer countries refused to negotiate on patents. As the aim of the UNFCCC is to tackle climate change, many people get angry that some nations prioritize making money ahead of everything else.
Without even discussing patents, are countries missing a big opportunity for creating a world powered by renewables? Youth educational exchanges or partnerships could also be key for sharing knowledge and technologies between Annex 1 and non-Annex I parties. Are there ways that University students can pressure Universities to make their climate innovations accessible to all?
This is an area of the LCA negotiations we need to keep our eyes on. This means that negotiators will look at the economic impacts of countries reducing their carbon. Some oil-exporting countries even want large amounts of compensation for reducing their carbon!
Capacity Building refers to the need to ensure that all countries have the skills, training and structures in place to be able to mitigate their emissions and adapt to the consequences of climate change.
Capacity Building is really important for young people as it involves our training, our education, and the support young people get around the world to tackle climate change at a local level. We can use strong decisions on capacity building to make cases to our governments and local institutions. We can also tackle the injustice of lack of support for developing countries.
The Capacity Building text started as a very good set of proposals and ideas for putting real effort into helping poorer countries. But during Cancun it was dramatically cut down, with many of the good ideas taken out. This included the reference to need to include young people in Capacity Building. If they are not building the capacity of young people, then where will we be in 20 years time?
Mitigation deals with the amount countries will reduce their emissions and how they will do this. This is the area we have seen very little progress on in the last few years, with voluntary targets that are not met. The two main challenges for Mitigation in the LCA is how developing countries can also reduce their emissions (unlike KP) and whether there is an alternative to inadequate voluntary targets (unlike KP).
Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions. This means targets for Non-Annex I developing countries to reduce their emissions.
Measurable, Reportable and Verifiable. This is a US suggestion that calls for all country's targets to be quantified properly and checked out independently. Countries like China are a little less happy about people interfering with their accounting figures.
The Gigatonne Gap is the gap between the promises and the science. If countries do keep their current promises, we'll be looking at a 3.5-6C temperature rise, yet the science says we should try to keep it to 1.5C. Countries need to increase their ambitions or a treaty needs to have binding scientific targets to close the Gigatonne Gap.
Most worrying of all is that some scientists think the window for restricting warming to 1.5C,
or even 2C, is closing rapidly.
In Bonn 2010 youth blocked the path from the train to the hotel with a surprise limbo for the negotiators, highlighting the Gigatonne Gap
Some youth have recently started talking about a need to create zero emission action plans in countries to get to zero emissions.
Some nations, including Costa Rica, Maldives, Iceland and Norway, have announced they aim to become Zero Emission nations.
The Bali Road Map highlighted that lots of technical discussion was getting stuck because negotiators were actually aiming for completelty different things. So they mandated the AWG-LCA to come up with a shared vision. This part of the negotiations aims to agree a maximum temperature goal, affirms Parties' belief in the urgency of climate change, protects human rights and stakeholder engagement etc. The disucussions can often become quite philosophical, but can also act as a breakthrough for other areas of the text.
The difference between a shared vision of a maximum 2C rise and 1.5C rise is not a small thing. It means the difference between small islands surviving or going underwater. It is the difference between possible runaway climate change or not. 1.5C is in line with the best science, and it's the maximum young people want to protect our future.
Young people in Cancun were forcibly removed from the negotiations for counting the number of climate deaths in 2010 whilst pleading with negotiators to adopt a 1.5C goal.
Executive Secretary
The UNFCCC Secretariat work for the UN to carry out the decisions made by the COP. They can only do things that are mandated to them by all Parties. So they cannot write text or have an influence on the text. However they are good sources of in-depth knowledge on policy. They liaise with "Focal Points" from each Constituency to approve actions and help us where possible.
The Executive Secretary is the leader of the Secretariat. Like the Secretariat they do not take a political position within the negotiations. However they have a big influence on process and outcomes by suggesting solutions, encouraging constructive debate and framing the negotiations. The current Executive Secretary is Christiana Figueres from Costa Rica.
Executive Secretary Christiana Figueres talks to young people from the "Adopt a Negotiator" project. In this video she sits down to relax with the youth and talk frankly and very openly about her passion, her inspiration and her expectations for the process.
UN Security are tasked with securing UN venues for negotiators and also for civil society. The Secretariat protects the right for young people to take action during UNFCCC meetings. However these must be approved by the Secretariat in advance.
Negotiators wear pink badges at the COP. You can talk to them in corridors (as long as you don't harrass them) or you can arrange meetings with them. Negotiators will often come in teams so be aware that the negotiator you are approaching may not know about the issue you want to lobby on!
Countries often negotiate as part of groups...
Mountains Group(s)
Pronouned "Juice-Cans", this was a temporary alliance of Japan, USA, Switzerland, Canada, Australia, Norway, New Zealand, Iceland and Lichtenstein. They didn't stay together long but you never know when they might pop up again.
JUSSCANNZ evolved into the Umbrella group. This is the loosest coalition of countries at the UNFCCC. They are non-EU developed countries who try to strategise together- but usually talk separately anyway. As they often don't get the support of everyone in their group, they will usually clarify at the start of their statement exactly which countries they are speaking for.
The European Union not only take a common negotiating position (with it's President member state taking the floor), they are also the only group of countries to submit joint emissions reduction targets and have their own nameplate at the UNFCCC. They have coordinating meetings every morning. Poland has their presidency until June 2012.
The Group of 77 has now evolved to a group of 131 of the world's "poorer" countries. It often takes a lot of time and effort for them to come to a common strategic position, but they fact that they achieve it at all is remarkable. The G77 appoints lead countries "Chairs" for each issue and has an overall Chair. In 2011 this is Argentina, which will be a very important country to focus on. China often joins the G77 in their statements and attends all of their meetings, but is not part of the G77, hence statements are made as "G77" or "G77 + China".
The Organisation of Petroleum-Exporting Countries includes Saudi Arabia, Venezuela, Iran, Qatar, Libya, Kuwait and others. They exist to protect the economic interests of their petroleum.
Least Developed Countries are objectively defined by the UN based on poor economy, low human assets and high economic vulnerability. They include 33 African countries, 10 Asian, 1 Caribbean and 5 Pacific countries.
The African Group is a sub-grouping of the G77, countries based on the continent of Africa. For example, Malawi is
both a member of the African Group and of the G77.
Small Island Developing States are defined by the UN based on geographic and economic criteria. They must be full member states of the UN unlike AOSIS...
Alliance of Small Island States. This is the political lobbying grouping of SIDS plus 5 other small Island "Observers" without UN country status. They often take strong moral stances and put forward proposals in line with the science
Central Asian Caucus and Maldova. These include Armenia, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan etc. They don't often group together, only at times where the definition of "Developing country" or "Economy in Transition" is being defined.
Alliance Bolivarian of the Americas. These are South American left-wing countries of Bolivia, Venezuela, Cuba, Ecuador and Nicaragua. They support the outcomes of the People's Agreement at the Cochabamba Conference in 2010. They often group together to make moral and anti-market stands in the negotiations. Venezuela is unusual in being part of ALBA and OPEC- which gives them a slightly bipolar quality in the talks. In Cancun, Bolivia stood alone in rejecting the Cancun agreements and many people wondered whether ALBA had abandoned them, however Bolivia claim to be building a broader alliance and ALBA was back in force in the Bangkok intersessionals of 2011
Group of Latin American and Caribbean countries. This is more of an official UN regional grouping which includes Central and South America and the Caribbean.
The Environmental Integrity Group. An unusual grouping of Mexico, the Republic of Korea and Switzerland (sometimes Lichtenstein and Monaco). It is the only group that brings Annex I and non-Annex I countries together to make proposals. They like to think they propose practical solutions
In 2010 Nepal announced it was thinking of bringing together countries with Mountains into a negotiating group. However Armenia, Kyrgistan and Tajikistan jumped the gun and formed their own group called "Group of Mountain Landlocked Developing Countries". Nepal didn't join them at first and tried to establish it's own group of mountainous countries.
Jonathan Pershing, the lead US negotiator
Konihiko Shimada, Japan
Clare Walsh and Louise Hand, Australia
UK Lead negotiator Peter Betts takes the mic from the EU Belgian presidency to tell the UN "This is magnificent, but it is not negotiation."
Mexican chief negotiator Luis d'Alba
Xie Zhenhua, negotiator for China
Negotiators from the G77 group align their strategy before a G77 coordinating meeting
Claudia Salerno, Venezuela
Tosi Mpanu Mpanu, Democratic Republic of the Congo
Yaw Opong Boadi, Ghana
Thilmeeza Hussein, Minister and Negotiator for the Maldives
Ian Fry, Tuvalu, tells participants not willing to sign up to KP2 to "quietly and politely leave the room"
Pablo Salon, Bolivia, is one of the most outspoken negotiators. He was the only one not to agree to the Cancun agreements.
BASIC group
Luiz A. Figueiredo, Brazil
Brazil, South Africa, India and China. This is a group of very powerful, fast-growing economies. Being non-Annex I countries but holding a lot of economic weight between them, they have the potential to bridge the negotiations providing a breakthrough. It is going to be interesting at COP17 in South Africa to see if this group becomes a strong political force for the Global South.
Alf Wills, South Africa
Intergovernmental Organisations
These are big UN bodies, or other international organisations that are not NGOs (non-governmental organisations).
United Nations Institute for Training and Research
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Scientists who procude reports on Climate Change)
World Health Organisation
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation
International Maritime Organisation (Ships)
United Nations Environment Programme
United Nations Development Programme
Constituencies are groups of Observers who are permitted to attend UN meetings, receive updates and support from the Secretariat, make submissions and intervene in UN meetings.
Environmental Non-Governmental Organisations
Trade Unions
Research & Independent NGOs
Climate Action Network. This is a group of 550 international NGOs who closely track the negotiatons, make policy statements, coordinate communications and select countries to receive a "Fossil of the Day". They split their ENGO priveledges equally with CJN!, including only taking 1 minute of the ENGO 2 minute speach.
Global Campaign for Climate Action (known as tcktcktck) is an alliance of NGOs who focus on campaigning within and outside of the UNFCCC to build a global climate movemnet. They focus on communications, actions and also run the "Adopt a Negotiator" tracker scheme
Climate Jusitce Now! are the second half of the ENGO constituency. They are made up of more left-wing NGOs and have 1 minute of the 2 minute ENGO speeches.
Once CAN has voted on the most strategic countries to award Fossil of the Day award, Young people get the job of presenting the prizes.
"ECO" is a daily newsletter published by CAN giving a roundup of the latest events and gossip from the negotiators. It also suggests constructive ways forward and shames most obstructive countries. The newsletter has become an influential favourite amongst negotiators who often carry one around as essential reading.
GCCA identified Japan as a key target in Cancun for announcing they were not going to commit to KP2. It attempted to embarrass them by taking out full-page adverts in global newspapers.
Youth Non-Governmental Organisations
Focal Points
Conference of Youth
This usually happens the weekend before the start of negotiations. It's a great opportunity for YOUNGO to come together to meet, share skills, create strategy and have fun.
AYCC (Australian Youth Climate Coalition) report from COY6 in Cancun 2010.
This is a whole day during the negotiations where there are events, talks and actions drawing attention to future generations.
Young and Future Generations Day
Youth outside the negotiations in Cancun prepare an official video for YoFuGe.
Spokescouncil is the official decision-making body of YOUNGO. It is named after the spokes on a bicycle wheel. If you want to speak or have an action on behalf of YOUNGO it goes through this. A representative from each organisation a "spoke" sits in a circle and the members of that organisation sit behind them and feed their ideas into the centre. Voting takes place using "waving hands" and everyone in the spoke must agree in order to achieve consensus.
The Bottom-Linining Team is a group of volunteers in YOUNGO who make sure things are happening. They do not have any powers to make decisions for YOUNGO but keep up with deadlines, run elections and ensure fairness.
There are 2 YOUNGO Focal Points each year. This is one person from the Global North and one person from the Global South. Their job is to liaise with the UNFCCC Secretariat on YOUNGO issues.
Policy Working Group
The YOUNGO Policy Working Group coordinates between several Policy and Advocacy groups within YOUNGO. There are Policy WGs on Forests, Article 6, Access, 1.5C, Tech Transfer, Capacity Building, Finance and more.
The Communication's Working Group coordinates YOUNGO efforts to produce press releases, blogs and talk to the media targetting the negotiations and people back home. They also put on press conferences, create a buzz around key policy issues and put pressure on negotiations at strategic points.
Abigail Borah from the USA delivers her message to world leaders after COP16 in Cancun
YOUNGO can make 2-minute speeches during negotiations at particular points where it is allowed by the chair. These require input from Policy and Communications and Intervention WGs to get a speech that tackles relevant policy but also conveys the moral voice we can bring to the negotiations.
Christina Ora, from the Soloman Islands delivers an intervention to the AWG-LCA during COP15 Copenhagen.
The Actions Working Group respond to policies with strategic actions, that put pressure on negotiations at key moments, or draw the eyes of the world's media. They plan action messaging, logistics, make artistic and creative props and bring it all together for a powerful message.
Young people draw attention to the issue of survival within the negotiations during COP14 in Poznan.
Hello! Welcome to this Module on the UN Climate Negotiations. This is best viewed in full-screen ("More">"Fullscreen"). You can use the arrows at the bottom to navigate your way through...
But you can also zoom in & out and drag the screen around to see how everything relates. Move your mouse to the right of the screen to bring up a zoom control. You can go at your own pace and go backwards to reread things. It's impossible for me to think about the UN Climate Negotiations without me seeing it in a big diagram- so there are lots of arrows and associations. We hope this way you can relate every little policy detail to the big picture!
But the UN Climate Negotiations aren't all about minute policy details. But it's important to know a bit of policy structure so you can understand where young people must make a stand to protect our future. The Youth Climate Movement will not stay quiet and watch whilst decisions are made- we make speeches, lobby, talk to the media and protest to ensure our voice is heard. In these prezis, I've added issues that are important for young people, with videos and pictures of the inspiring actions youth have taken on the issue. I've also tried to cover what happened in recent UN Climate talks and what the key issues may be in Doha, at the next talks. Hopefully you find this equally informative and inspiring.
By the end of this, the aim is for you to understand this:
And use this knowledge to change things!
There are 4 Modules:
1) The Convention- a Foundation
2) Kyoto, Equity and Doha
3) Cooperation and Contention
4) YOUNGO and Friends!

But you can also take these:
5) The Whole Lot
6) Explore on your own
Before we start, make a cup of tea, and turn on your headphones!
Module 1
: The Convention- a Foundation
We'll start with the UNFCCC, take you through the first agreement, the first youth involvement, the basic structure and throw in some examples of great youth engagement with the process. Enjoy!
Module 2: Kyoto, Equity and Doha
We'll begin with the first binding agreement, what happened in Durban, including the huge issue of Equity and look forward to Doha. And of course some legendary youth actions.
Module 3: Cooporation and Contention
We need a fair, ambitious and binding agreement on climate change. This module introduces us to the way the UN is trying to achieve this, the variety of stumbling points and the way young people are putting pressure on the key issues...
Module 4: YOUNGO and Friends!
Now we've learnt all of the UNFCCC policies, let's think about the personalities, groups and their influence in the process. We'll start with the Secretariat and end with your very own Youth Constituency.
5) The Whole Lot. This will take you throughout the whole structure of the UNFCCC and the groups that act within it. Be patient, have lots of cups of tea ready, and be prepared for an amazing journey...
6) Explore on your own.
I'd recommend doing this if you've already been through the modules and you know your way round. It's good for reminding yourself of how everything relates. Go wild!
We're done! And here's what you can look forward to next time...
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This cool video summarizes some of the key incidents from Cancun at COP16. Like always at the UNFCCC things are rarely straight forward. Bolivia and some other countries refused to sign the Cancun Accord which meant that consensus was not reached. This annoyed some people at the talks who wanted an agreement to be reached. Other people at the talks supported Bolivia because they felt the agreement was too weak. This is a balance between finding consensus, meaningful emissions reductions and progress that features often in UN climate change talks.
You can keep up to date with UNFCCC communications at their website -  www.unfccc.int UNFCCC Twitter - twitter.com/UN_ClimateTalks www.facebook.com/UNclimatechange
“The ultimate objective of this Convention and any related legal instruments that the Conference of the Parties may adopt is to achieve, in accordance with the relevant provisions of the Convention, stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system. Such a level should be achieved within a time-frame sufficient to allow ecosystems to adapt naturally to climate change, to ensure that food production is not threatened and to enable economic development to proceed in a sustainable manner.”
It is useful to remember what UNFCCC is tasked with achieving…
“The ultimate objective of this Convention and any related legal instruments that the Conference of the Parties may adopt is to achieve, in accordance with the relevant provisions of the Convention, stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system. Such a level should be achieved within a time-frame sufficient to allow ecosystems to adapt naturally to climate change, to ensure that food production is not threatened and to enable economic development to proceed in a sustainable manner.”
It is useful to remember what UNFCCC is tasked with achieving…
We will look at some more terms used at the UN climate talks; the Kyoto Protocol and some of the things it covers including areas like forests; what has happened in previous COPs and the outcomes of Durban (COP17); Equity and what we can look out for in Doha.
Durban in 2 minutes...
Again the youth at UNFCCC was vital in creating urgency around the matters that matter.
Civil Society held an unprecedented protest in the final days of talks in Durban in anger at slow progress and nations not listening to the people.
Some great YOUNGO interventions also took place.
Youth Action
In the last hours of COP17 this was agreed after a stand-off with some nations including USA and India.

A deal was agreed for a treaty with 'legal force' to be negotiated by 2015 and to start in 2020 but there are still many things to be finalised such as targets.

One of the issues that led to the delay in this area was the area of equity, which we will talk about shortly.
As the KP and KP2 only covers Annex 1 nations (though some didn't sign up) there was a need for a future treaty that would cover a wider range of nations.

A treaty that was binding and including all the large emitters was hoped for.

In the last hours of COP17 this was agreed after a stand-off with some nations including USA and India.
2020 Treaty
Concerns over the GCF exist over where it is hosted and the balance of money that goes to mitigation compared to adaptation (now urgently needed by developing nations suffering from climate change caused by Annex 1 countries).
There was an agreement to start a new KP which is good news.
But some nations did not sign up to it (again USA, now joined by Canada, Japan and more recently Russia) and there is doubt over some others (namely Australia and New Zealand).
With Kyoto Protocol’s commitment coming to an end in 2012, COP17 was the chance to ‘save Kyoto’
Civil society and many nations demanded an extension to binding emissions reductions
Kyoto Protocol 2
Tom from the UK gives his interpretation of Durban including his key moments and his frustrations.
Durban in 10 mins...

(take a break and have a tea as you watch this cool video
- you deserve it!)
COP 17 Hand Puppets Summary
Green Climate Fund (GCF)
A Green Climate Fund was agreed in Durban which is good news...but it has not been filled with money yet.

The GCF is another tool to address climate change mitigation and adaptation by transferring funds to developing nations.
We know Kyoto was not perfect but it was the only binding deal that held nations accountable. The youth put a lot of energy and effort into supporting a new KP.
What happened in Durban?
Kyoto saved?
Green Climate Fund
2020 treaty
Equity discussion
Youth action
COP17 - Durban
It Doha is is hoped that some common understanding of equity and how it can apply to reduction pledges of all nations can be reached.
This must take into account development that nations need to undertake (developing nations especially) and historical responsibility.
We sometimes hear powerful nations talk about ‘national circumstances’ and use this as an excuse for their dangerously low emissions reductions pledges.
There is a danger that some negotiating teams who are happy to see progress stall will use the equity discussion as a means of doing so.
If the equity gap discussion turns into a theoretical one rather than something to really see progress.

Equity has now taken a central role in the talks and this can be seen as both an opportunity and a threat.
Equity – Opportunity and Threat
Equity is all about each nation feeling they are taking actions appropriate to their responsibilities for emissions reductions.
So it is not a new concept as “common but differentiated responsibilities" (CBDR) has been a feature of talks since the inception of UNFCCC.
In Qatar we want to see the continuation of the progress made at COP17 in Kyoto Protocol continue in the KP2. Like all sequels, we want KP to be even better than the original Kyoto Protocol!
To do this we need to make sure that developing nations (Annex 1) sign up with ambitious reductions. This is essential to avoid catastrophic climate change but it will also show good faith to other nations at the talks.
Raising ambition
The upcoming talks in Doha will pick up
from where Durban, COP17 left off.

What to look out for:
Raising ambition
Equity discussion
Strong youth voice
Doha, Qatar COP18
Holding this discussion can allow a space for nations to be open and come to agreement on how carbon reductions can be shared in a fair manner.
If this 'equity gap' can be addressed it could be a significant breakthrough in climate negotiations and restore faith to the talks.
Opportunity that Equity presents
As we found out at the end of COP17 in Durban, equity is going to be a defining point of future negotiations.

It has always been involved in UFCCC talks but now it is explicit and a space has been created for a ‘frank and open’ discussion on the issue.
Equity – what does it mean and why is it being discussed?
The work to reduce or remove fossil fuels is important and ties into previous YOUNGO efforts to call out the unfair influence big corporations and their lobbyists have over some nations at the UNFCCC talks.
A youth action on creating a clean, just future.
Another really important area that civil society want to see discussed, and progress, perhaps under ADP is fossil fuel subsidies. This was a key talking point for civil society in the Rio+20 Earth Summit in 2012. Industries like the oil industry are the most profitable in the world so many people don’t think we should be giving them so much money in the form of subsidies especially as their actions are largely the cause of climate change in the first place.
ADP should be looking at ways to achieve emissions reductions outside of previous UNFCCC work. ADP should provide a space to increase ambition and allow nations to discuss national actions. ADP can hopefully allow nations to learn from each other in how to reduce their emissions.
YOUNGO take part in a cool action at Bonn in the intersessionals before Doha.
One new area of the talks that has emerged from Durban is ADP.
Ad Hoc Working Group on the Durban Platform for Enhanced Action (ADP)
This loophole is an example of some double counting that can happen under LCA. This is really important to eradicate as if all possible loopholes/double counting were combined it would really damage any real carbon reductions that we are trying to achieve.
By Jamie Peters
International Youth Climate Movement
email me questions!
Thanks to everyone who made the movies and pictures and thanks to the International Youth Climate Movement for making the change happen!
Adapted from UNFCCC training
by Danny Hutley
Some people question how effective it is to use the 'free market' and money based methods as a means of reducing emissions.
Well done, you've reached the end of prezi 3, next up...
Module 4: YOUNGO and Friends!
Now we've learnt all of the UNFCCC policies, let's think about the personalities, groups and their influence in the process. We'll start with the Secretariat and end with your very own Youth Constituency.
Green Climate Fund
2020 Treaty
Great youth involvement and actions
Durban, COP17
Hundreds of Youth at COP17 protest inside the UN.
Anjali from the USA delivers an intervention urging action in the talks. The youth respond turning the intervention into an action.
UKYCC's hand puppets explaining some of the key moments in Durban.
Durban was one of the most significant COPs in terms of how future international climate talks will be shaped
Ode to Kyoto
The LCA is due to come to a completion in Doha.
However, as nations have continually failed to respond to what science says we must do in terms of emissions reductions we hear more and more about 2C as a target and less about 1.5C.
One thing is for sure, the window of opportunity to restrict either of these warming limits is getting smaller and smaller and we urgently need to see emissions reductions match what science says is needed.
Youth at Bonn, 2012 hold a marriage ceremony for Science and Politics. If this was to happen in the talks we would see a Fair, Ambitious and Binding (FAB) agreement!
Innovative forms of finance
At the UN climate talks we sometimes here the term, innovative forms of finance, and it includes various methods for raising funds for adaptation and mitigation efforts.
Financial Transaction Tax (FTT)
The FTT also known as The Robin Hood Tax is one area that the youth have been active in showing support for. A Robin Hood Tax would raise significant funds for climate change by adding a very small tax to some financial transactions of sectors such as stock exchanges. This small tax (0.01–0.05%) would build up to a significant amount when added together and allow adaptation and mitigation efforts to be stronger.
Bunker Fuel Tax
At COP17 YOUNGO awarded “Robin Hood Champion Awards” to nations who discussed and supported the Robin Hood Tax (Financial Transaction Tax).

France, Norway, Bangladesh, Pakistan and South Africa were all awarded for their support of this form of climate finance that could raise billions each year.
Bangladesh’s Minister of the Environment accepts the showing his country’s commitment to pushing forward innovative financing plans for the Green Climate Fund (GCF).
The Minister of Science and Technology of South Africa She takes part in a YOUNGO action by using a bow and arrow to symbolically “aim for a Robin Hood Tax” and shot a bulls-eye!
Members of YOUNGO participate in an action highlighting this area.
A maritime bunker levy has been suggested as another form of climate finance.

International shipping is a significant contributor to GHG emissions and it is growing. If a price was given to the emissions in this sector it could result in reduced emissions and add significant funds for climate finance.
Full transcript