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Cardiovascular Disease

on 16 October 2014

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Transcript of heart

Coronary Artery Disease
How can Health psychologists help?

What is known about coronary artery disease?
This is the leading cause of death worldwide
According to Nucleus Medical Media, the heart's vessel wall becomes blocked.
“Disease and Ease”

Symptoms for Chronic Coronary Artery Disease:

Chest pains
Slight dizziness
Shortness of breath
Silent disease

Plaque build-up works in two ways:

1. Dissolves= chronic pain will go away
2. Does not dissolve= swelling and rupture will occur then creating a heart attack.

Two types of Cholesterol
1.Low-Density-Lipoprotien (LDL) is the “bad cholesterol”
Examples of LDL’s are whole fat dairy foods such as whole milk and cheese. Also, anything containing high amounts of saturated fat such as butter and/or vegetable oil.

Calcium Channel Blockers
Coronary Angioplasty

Angina: Severe pain in the chest caused by heart problems.

Angina can be caused from exercise.

High-Density-Lipoprotien (HDL) is the “good cholestorol”
Examples of HDL’s are fish, olive oils, and even an alchoholic beverage a day.
Approximately the same number of women and men die each year from Coronary Artery Disease.
Patient adherence is a major issue in the medical system.
Some factors that lead to low patient adherence:
Improper education.
Patient socioeconomic status.
Changes in pill appearance
Having a heart attack is very stressful
Health Psychologists can help:
By teaching physicians to communicate better with their patients.
Also by instructing physicians to properly combat the fears of their patients.
Patients education-
May also play a huge role in their adherence.
Medicine regimens can be confusing and hard to keep up with.
Studies have shown that patient adherence in the elderly is the lowest out of all age groups because they may also be suffering from other conditions that deteriorate memory.

Patient SES is also a huge factor in adherence. Especially since we as a nation just went through economic turmoil the importance of finding cheaper and effective ways to help patients get better is so important.
Pill appearances continuing to change is also causing issues in patient adherence.
According to Kesselheim and the research done by his team on patient adherence, consistency of regimens has major effects on patient adherence.


Avoiding general Cardiovascular disease:
Andreas Gruentzig is considered the founder of Interventional Cardiology.
Branch of Cardiology that focuses on the
based treatment of heart diseases.
Interventional Cardiology refers to non-surgical procedures for treating CAD.
A large number of procedures can be performed on the heart by catheterization.
Uses thin, flexible tubes called “catheters” to get inside blood vessels for diagnostic tests or to repair damaged vessels.
This may even avoid the need for surgery.
Involves the insertion of a sheath into the femoral artery, or any large peripheral artery or vein.
Regular checkups with your physician are the best way to monitor yourself. Early intervention methods are vital:
Blood tests (cardiac markers) to show cholesterol levels; Horomnal therapy may be useful
Hypertension test; possibly medications
Cardiac Stress and Exercise tests
Electrocardiography (Electrocardiogram)
Echocardiogram (an "
Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (Angioplasty)
24-hour Holter Monitor
Stenting- like PCI, or Angioplasty
-Prevention is a patient’s job; Intervention is when the doctor steps in.
-A person's risk factors can be established early by a physician.
-An early intervention can be used by doctors by informing patients about risk factors:
Genetics- earliest intervention sign for a physician
Healthy lifestyles habits
If a candidate with high BP, medications may help a patient avoid CAD
Blood tests check for chemical levels; non-invasive treatments are a great way for physicians to intervene.
*The best time to intervene is as early as possible.

Heart Healthy Lifestyle
Know if you're at risk
Understanding risk factors
Reducing stress

Heart Healthy Lifestyle
Stop smoking
Eat a heart healthy diet
Manage your weight
Am I at risk?
Other Factors To Manage

Cholestrerol-modifying medications
Beta blockers
Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors
Angiotensin II receptor blockers
"Home remedies"
stop smoking
control your blood pressure
check your choleterol
keep dieabetes under control
eat healthier
get moving
maintin a healthy weight
manage stress
Works Cited:
Kesselheim, A. S., Bykov, K., Acorn, J., Tong, A., Dohery, M., & Choudhry, N. K. (2014). Burden of Changes in Pill Appearance for Ptients Reveiving Generic Cardiovascular Medication After Myocardial Infarction. American College of Physicians, 96-103.
Traylor, A. H., Schmittdiel, J. A., Uratsu, C. S., Mangione, C. M., & Subramanian, U. (2010). Adherence to Cardiobascular Disease Medication: Does Patient Provide Race/Ethnicity and Language Concordance Matter? Journal of General Internal Medicine, 1172-1177.
WHO. www.worldlifeexpectancy.com/cause-of-death/coronary-heart-disease/by-country. 2011. Web. 3 October 2014.
Health, National Institute of. Who is at risk for heart diseas. 21 April 2014. Web. 3 October 2014.
Mayo Clinic. Treatments and drugs. CAD. 14 Novemeber 2013. Web. 3 October 2014.

Some factors that affect both women and men are:
Lifestyle habits (Diet, Medications, Exercise, etc..)
Any one of these risk factor doubles your chance of getting coronary heart disease.
Angina Pectoris- Results from restriction of blood supply.
As of 1998...
1) Slovakia: 216
2) Hungary: 192.1
3) Ireland: 152.6
4) Czech Republic: 148.6
5) Finland: 143.8
6) New Zealand: 127.3
7) United Kingdom: 122
8) Iceland: 115.4
9) Norway: 112.5
10) Australia: 110.9
11) Sweden: 110.1
12) Austria: 109.3
13) United States: 106.5

14) Germany: 106.1
15) Denmark: 105.4
As of 2011...
1) Turkmenistan: 405.1
2) Ukraine: 399.8
3) Kyrgyzstan: 349.4
4) Belarus: 348.1
5) Kazakhstan: 346.5
6) Moldova: 335.3
7) Afghanistan: 328.6
8) Uzbekistan: 323.2
9) Russia: 296.7
10) Georgia: 285.9
11) Armenia: 248.5
12) Yemen: 238.5
13) Marshall Isl.: 237.7
14) Lithuania: 233.7
15) Azerbaijan: 232.9

135 United States 80.5
people per 100,000 deaths
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