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Copy of Garde Manger
Transcript of Copy of Garde Manger
"keep to eat"
refers to a cool, well-ventilated area where cold dishes...
pates and terrines
Oil and vinegar dressings
-Most un-thickened dressings.
-Most thickened dressings.
-Similar in appearance to mayonnaise dressings, but more tart, and with little or no oil content.
Most salad dressings are made primarily of an oil and an acid, with other ingredients added to modify the flavor or texture.
A salad dressing’s quality depends directly on the quality of the ingredients.
Vegetable or Salad Oil
All-purpose oils for dressings should have a mild, sweet flavor.
Even a hint of rancidity can ruin an entire batch of dressing.
Strongly flavored oils can make excellent salad dressings but are not appropriate with every food.
Winterized oil should be used with dressings that are to be refrigerated.
These oils have been treated so they remain a clear liquid when chilled.
White or Distilled Vinegar
Should have a good, clean, sharp flavor for their type.
Strength of acidity determines the tartness of the vinegar and of the dressing made from it.
Some range as high as 7 or 8 percent.
Most salad vinegars have approximately 5 percent acidity.
Vinegar that is too strong should be diluted with a little water before it is measured for a recipe.
*Fresh lemon juice may be used in place of or in addition to vinegar.
Egg yolk is an essential ingredient in mayonnaise and other emulsified dressings.
*Seasonings and Flavorings
Nearly any herb or spice can be used in salad dressings
*Dried herbs and spices need extra time to release their flavors if they are not heated in the product.
Salad Dressings, continued..
Emulsions in salad dressings
*A uniform mixture of two unmixable liquids is called an emulsion.
One liquid is said to be in suspension in the other.
two liquids always separate after being shaken or beaten together.
The harder the mixture is beaten or shaken, the longer it takes for it to separate.
Mayonnaise is also a mixture of oil and vinegar; the two liquids do not separate
This is because the formula also contains egg yolk, which is a strong emulsifier.
The egg yolk forms a layer around each of the tiny droplets and holds them in suspension.
...A natural emulsifier
To make a good emulsion, mix some mustard with the vinegar.
Often, it serves as the base for a wide variety of other dressings.
Mayonnaise is the most important emulsified dressing.
Homemade mayonnaise is not as stable as the commercial product.
By carefully selecting your ingredients you can make a superior-tasting product.
Cooked dressings: Made with little or no oil and with a starch thickener.
Similar in appearance to mayonnaise, but with a more tart, strong flavor.
Sour cream-based dressings.
Fruit juice-based dressings.
Yogurt dressings (for fruit salads).
Have well-balanced flavors.
Have a pleasant tartness.
Harmonize with and complement the salad with which they are served
Standards of Quality
Dressings, sauces and dips made from fresh cream or fermented dairy products
Sour cream, crème fraiche, yogurt, buttermilk
May require additional thickening
Mashed, hard-cooked egg yolk
Cooked starch base (Old Fashioned Boiled Dressing)
Enhance with fresh herbs, condiments, cheese, vegetable puree
Dairy Based Dressings
Ingredient in sandwiches, sauces, dips and appetizers
Black beans, corn, peppers, nopal cactus
Made from tomatoes or other soft, juicy vegetables or fruits that have not been cooked
Pico de Gallo
Traditional salsa ingredients fabricated into small dice
Made from firm, ripe avocados
Vegetable or fruit grinded to a pulp
Usually strained through a sieve or food mill
Pureed sauce made from a vegetable or fruit
Vegetable and Fruit Purees
Skin vegetable or fruit (if necessary)
Trim and discard cores, hulls, seeds, unripe areas
Chop into small pieces
Transfer to food mill, strainer or sieve
Cooked to soften fibers
Blanched “a point”
Flavor with aromatic vegetables and oils
Use as rapidly as possible
Cooked Vegetable Sauces
5 Flavor Groups
*Spinach and *Beet Greens
Baby mustard greens
Flat leaf spinach
Baby swiss chard
Baby beet greens
Spinach and Beet Greens
Best way is to purchase greens in the natural season directly from local farmer or specialty grower.
Superior flavor and texture.
Almost entire nutrient content.
Salad Greens – Market Forms
Water based nutrient solutions
Year round harvest
Many Chefs believe lack Flavor
But High cost and storage considerations
Salad Greens – Market Form
But more perishable
Health Risks (Bacterial/Viral contamination)
Salad Greens – Market Form
Use best ingredients
Choose greens and garnish items whose textures, flavors and colors are complementary
Match texture and flavor of the dressing to the character of the greens
Combine greens, dressings and garnishes with discretion.
Serve on cool plates
Plan salad in the context of the meal served
Guidelines for Creating
Superior Simple Salads
Cold Vegetables and Fruits
Preserving color, flavor and nutrients when cooking vegetables for cold service, Changes that occur during fruit ripening process, fabrication specialty vegetables for garde manger preparations, Preparing vegetables to be served cold using a variety of cooking methods, Managing the ripening process through proper purchasing and storage, creating attractive fruit/vegetable platters
A dish that consists of whole, intact cold vegetables or a single type of cold vegetable
Appetizers: Cooked cold vegetables with salad dressing or other sauce. Cold vegetable dip (Hummus, Baba Ghanoush, Guacamole)
Side Dishes: Mostly buffet work. Cold vegetable side dishes typically add color and freshness to the display
Entrees: Less common than hot vegetable entrees.
Cold Vegetable Dish
A plant part that is prepared and served as a savory food.
Includes many foods which, botanically speaking, are fruits. (beans, tomatoes, avocado)
To correctly serve: understanding of major vegetable classifications and knowledge of when particular vegetables are in season.
3 texture groups-
1. Hard vegetables: carrots, rutabagas, winter squashes
2. Firm vegetables: green beans, turnips, head cabbage, corn
3. Tender vegetables: zucchini, eggplant, cucumbers, tomatoes
*Other Considerations: state of maturity, state of freshness.
Chlorophyll: Green vegetables
Carotenoids: Orange and orange-red vegetables
Anthocyanins: Purple and purple-red vegetables
Anthoxanthins: Most white vegetables
CERTAIN SUBSTANCES AND COOKING METHODS ADVERSELY AFFECT VEGETABLE PIGMENTS
Three Main Pigment groups responsible for vegetable colors:
Preserve or heighten vegetable colors in your preparations
Consider the part of the vegetable you are actually going to cook
Ex: artichokes, eggplant
Acidic ingredients destroy chlorophyll
White vegetables susceptible to enzymatic browning
Industrial agriculture brought many fruits and vegetables to brink of extinction
In the late 20th century, horticulturists, small vegetable growers and home gardeners banded together to save as many traditional vegetable and fruit cultivars as possible.
Available in season only
Fruit and cheese
Stone fruit and charcuterie
Proscuitto and melon or figs
Applications for Fruit/Fruit dishes
Fabricate and Arrange so they are easy to serve and eat
Alternate Shapes and colors
Height, cascading from center to the edge
Treat fruits that may discolor from enzymatic browning
Don’t prepare fruit platters too far ahead of time
Preserve appearance through duration of service
Guidelines for Fruit Platters
Process by which mature fruit completes life cycle:
Skin color changes (usually from green to warm color)
Acid content decreases
Sugar content increases
Texture softens and Flesh becomes juicier
Characteristic aroma develops
Characteristic flavor develops
Results in RIPE FRUIT!!!
Purchasing good produce is more than half the battle
Store it properly and use it quickly
Intense color, vegetables should be medium size and slender for type. Optimal size depends on use
Heavy in relation to size, firm to touch
Purchasing, Storing, Managing
Optimally ripe fruits often give when gently pressed (especially around stem)
Sign of ripeness in some fruits but not others
Some fruits ripen only while on the plant
Some ripen after harvesting
Bananas, peaches, tomatoes
Must be picked when mature and held in proper conditions
Some benefit from being picked early
Use as quickly as possible
If you must hold uncooked, fabricated produce for longer than an hour
Keep moist by storing b/w damp towels and covered
Some stored submerged in water
Potatoes, artichoke hearts, vegetables for crudites (not longer than couple hours)
Storing Fabricated Produce
Cooking stops the activity of enzymes that breaks down the texture of raw produce.
Once cooked, keep relatively dry
Keep in clean containers lined with towels to absorb moisture.
Use within three days or freeze
Fruits to be cooked are usually poached
Store in their cuisson
Storing Cooked Vegetables
What is a Cuisson?
French term for...
a flavorful poaching liquid
Washing: removes insects, soil, pathogens (chemicals)
Trimming: Most have at least one naturally tough, fibrous or discolored part that must be removed
Peeling: ensures good appearance, consistent texture and even cooking
Cutting into shape
Prepare container of ice water
Immerse the vegetables for 30 min to 1 hour
Drain the vegetables/remove ice
Place the vegetables in clean container lined with towels
Cover and refrigerate
Hold for shortest possible time
When cooking vegetables, maturity trumps all other factors
When cooking fruits, ripeness determines cooking doneness
Underripe best for moist-method. Perfectly ripe served raw.
Cooking Vegetables and Fruits
Refers to virtually any mixture or cold foods that is enhanced with a tart, tangy sauce or dressing
Raw cooked vegetables or fruits
Starches or legumes
Mixed presentation: Ingredients are mixed together and mounded on a plate. May be placed on a lettuce liner or bed of greens. +garnish
Arranged Presentation: Each element is dressed or seasoned separately and then all are assembled together on the plate in attractive composition
Complex side salads: used as side dishes
Bound Protein salads: used at center of plate or sandwich fillings
Complete salads (veg, starch, protein) appetizers or entrees
Fruit salads: used as breakfast/brunch items
Salads - By Role
When raw or cooked green vegetables come in contact with an acidic dressing they take on a drab color.
dress the salad just before service
Keep separate and mix to order
If you want to infuse with flavor the vegetables will discolor, but be flavorful…
… YOUR CHOICE
Green Vegetables in Complex Salads
Raw onions are one of most perishable ingredients in a complex salad and deteriorate in a short period.
Can harm texture and flavor
Shallots and scallions mild and contain less water
Onions should be fabricated and added to each day’s batch at last minute.
Onions in Complex Salads
Some raw vegetables release moisture (water out) when mixed with dressings.
High moisture content (cucumber)
Firm vegetables that are young and fresh
Salting: toss with a little kosher salt and drain in colander or on towels. Salt pulls out moisture
Scalding: sturdy vegetables (cabbage, turnips, carrots, celery, etc.) Pour boiling water over vegetables. Rinse under cold water. Gently squeeze water out and blot dry
Pre-dressing: Toss in dressing and let stand at room temp for up to an hour. Transfer to colander and drain.
Most complex salads have not yet achieved their best flavor and texture immediately after they are prepared.
Solid ingredients need time to absorb some of the liquid ingredients and for flavors to mingle.
Rest for a time after assemble to properly evaluate seasoning
This mellowing time can vary from one product to another
3 basic elements
Main food item
Secondary Item (often a base)
Bedded- based on layer of greens
Mounded- assortment of complex salads arranged together
Flat – sliced solid foods, spreads/dips/purees
Molded – compressed into attractive shapes
Stacked – large, flat pieces of food are stacked
Cold seafood appetizers,
cold seafood entrees,
seafood presentations for buffets, cooking with acid,
cooking techniques for seafood to be served cold,
Food from the sea…
Non-mammal animal foods derived from both fresh and saltwater sources.
Fish – bony interior skeletons, gills
Crustaceans – shrimp, crab, lobster
Mollusks – clams, oysters, mussels, scallops
Cephalopods – squid, cuttlefish, octopus
Cold Seafood Appetizers
Popular due to high cost of seafood
Seafood cocktail: chilled seafood tossed or topped with a sauce and served in a cocktail glass on a bed of lettuce with lemon.
Shrimp cocktail chiller: presentation vessel which uses ice to keep seafood chilled.
Raw seafood appetizers:
Bivalves: “on the half shell”
Fish: sashimi, tartare
Most used is commercially processed crabmeat
West coast dungeness may be prepared in house
Eastern blue crab often considered best
Colossal Lump: large, unbroken pieces of white meat
Jumbo lump: slightly smaller
Lump: Large, clean pieces, minimal shell
Backfin: white pieces mixed with shredded white meat
Special: shredded white meat with some brown meat, often bits of shell
Claw meat: Shredded brown meat from claws and legs
Claw fingers (cocktail claws) Claw meat with claw tips attached to use as handles.
Brine – 1T:1Qt
Carryover cooking: stop the cooking process before the desired doneness is achieved. DO NOT REFRESH/SHOCK!
Heat transferred from the heat source to the pan and from the pan into the liquid that surrounds the food being cooked (cuisson)
Just hot enough to create steam, form tiny bubbles and “shiver”
Low temperature prevents delicate foods from falling apart. Below 200 degrees F.
Steaming: Cooking food in enclosed space completely surrounded by water vapor (over 212 deg F)
Stovetop: can add aromatics
Commercial: must flavor before steaming.
Pan-steaming: small, sturdy items cooked over high heat in a covered pot or saute pan with a small amount of liquid that quickly turns to steam. (mussels, clams, shrimp)
Grilling: only for firm textured seafood
Marinades, basting sauces
Undercook to allow for carryover
Cooking with acid
Application of acid has similar effect as heat on delicate seafood
Citrus juice or vinegar penetrates soft, porous muscle tissue and changes the protein structure
Seafood acquires cooked flavor and appearance
Yes, you can overcook! Mushy, cottony, rubbery
*Trim away silverskin and other connective tissue
*Fabricate into uniform pieces (1/2” or smaller)
*Salt the “cooking liquid”
*Choose non-reactive container add seafood and stir often under refrigeration
*Monitor “cooking” time. Evaluate by breaking open a piece and observing color change. Taste
*Drain when sufficiently “cooked”
*Toss with oil and other liquid or solid seasonings
*Hold under refrigeration
*Remove rack from poacher
*Boil court bouillon
*Brush rack with oil
*Wash fish thoroughly. Cut cavity membrane and wash away traces of blood
*Place on rack and lower into court bouillon, simmer 8 minutes per inch of thickness
*Place entire poacher in ice bath
*Cool fish in cuisson to room temp, then refrigerate
Deep Poaching (day 2)
*Strain court bouillon and boil. Skim
*Place parchment on work table
*Remove fish from poacher using the rack.
*Set rack on parchment and slide fish onto parchment
*Slit the skin around tail and behind gills.
*Peel, clean fat deposits. Both sides. Blot cavity dry
*Lift fish onto platter presentations side up
*Brush with vegetable oil
Consists of a full-flavored base of cooked, puréed food lightened with whipped cream and/or beaten egg whites, served with no further cooking.
All mousses have two main components:
The purée base: In a savory mousse, the purée base may consist of cooked or smoked seafood, cooked or smoked poultry, smoked meats, cooked or raw vegetables, or cheese.
Lightening ingredients: In a savory mousse, lighteners such as whipped cream and/or beaten egg whites are used to capture air and give a light, fluffy texture when incorporated into the purée base.
Determining Mousse Texture
Many mousses need the addition of a stabilizer, or stabilizing ingredient, in the form of gelatin.
A mousse stabilizer gives the purée base enough structure to hold the lighteners and, in some cases, to ensure the mousse will stand alone when unmolded.
Determining Mousse Texture
The finished texture of a mousse is determined by three factors:
Natural consistency of the purée base.
The base should be about the thickness of pastry cream so that the added lightening ingredients can keep their volume.
Adjustments to consistency of the base must be made for effective preparation.
Determining Mousse Texture
The finished texture of a mousse is determined by three factors:
2. The amount of gelatin added.
Gelatin is added to firm the texture of the finished mousse.
The more gelatin is added, the thicker and more stable the final product.
Too much gelatin gives a mousse an unpleasant, rubbery texture.
3. The ratio of purée base to lightening ingredients.
Adding a smaller amount of whipped cream and/or beaten egg white results in a thicker, firmer mousse.
Using more makes a softer, less stable mousse.
Preparing Seafood Mousses
Unless you are using smoked seafood, your first step in preparing a seafood mousse is to cook the seafood.
Poaching is the most common method.
Steamed seafood may also be used.
To ensure smooth texture and successful structure:
trim all visible connective tissue.
remove all dark deposit fat before or after cooking.
Cool the seafood before proceeding.
Guidelines for Food Safety in Mousses
Use pasteurized egg whites only.
Bring egg whites to room temperature shortly before use.
Wear food-service gloves when preparing mousses.
Work quickly and in small batches.
Clean and sanitize the preparation equipment, especially the grinder or food processor.
Clean and sanitize all molds, forms, or pastry bags and tips used to present mousses.
Standards for Serving Raw Seafood
Seafood is highly perishable—both its quality and wholesomeness deteriorate quickly.
Seafood intended for raw consumption must be exceptionally fresh, both for health reasons and for palatability.
To successfully include raw seafood on your menu, you must understand the risks involved, and comply with both local and national regulations. (See next slide for guidelines.)
Guidelines for Purchasing Whole Fish
Gills are brightly colored and moist, not brown or gray and sticky.
Scales are shiny and tightly attached, not dull in color and falling off.
Blood behind the cavity membrane is a bright red or burgundy color, not brown or black.
Flesh is intact and firm and springy to the touch, not split open and mushy in texture.
Guidelines for Purchasing Whole Fish
With the exception of frozen, sashimi-grade fish, fish for raw service should be purchased whole.
Look for the following freshness indicators:
Aroma is fresh, mild, and briny, with no fishy odor.
Eyes are moist and convex, or bulging, and not dry or sunken.
Staff members assigned to open bivalves must be trained in safety procedures and equipped with a stainless-steel cut proof glove.
Keep clam knives and oyster knives in good condition, with backups provided in case of breakage.
Do not use paring knives and other standard knives, as they break easily and can slip and cause injuries.
Make sure that seafood for raw service comes from safe and uncontaminated waters.
Most ocean fish are safe for raw consumption; freshwater fish are not.
Freshwater species may contain parasites that can be transmitted to humans if eaten raw.
Guidelines for Raw Seafood Sanitation and Safety
To serve raw seafood that is both safe and delicious, observe these strict standards:
Sanitize all surfaces that will come into contact with the seafood.
Frequently sanitize cutting boards and knives used for raw seafood.
Raw Shellfish Specialties
Technically, any type of saltwater seafood may be eaten raw as long as it is:
harvested from approved waters.
correctly cleaned and fabricated.
not of a species likely to contain parasites.
However, not all types of shellfish are considered palatable when served raw.
Oysters are bivalves with hard, rough shells of varying shape.
The shells have a definitive top and bottom:
The bottom shell is cup-like.
The top shell is flatter than the bottom shell.
Oyster flesh is very delicate.
Fresh oysters contain a high percentage of fluid.
The liquid surrounding the oyster is called oyster liquor, though it does not contain alcohol. Oyster liquor is flavorful and should be reserved and used for soups and sauces.
Oysters on the half-shell are freshly shucked (opened and the meat removed) and presented in their cup-shaped bottom shells.
Opening fresh oysters to order requires extra turnout time and skilled labor.
Guidelines for Raw Seafood Sanitation and Safety
Store clam and oyster knives in sanitizing solution between uses.
When opening bivalves, use towels and gloves that are clean and free from strings and lint. (Change frequently.)
If the “liquor” from opened bivalves is saved for use in soups and sauces, keep the collection vessel in an ice bath during use.
Strain the “liquor” of grit and shell fragments before using or storing it.
Raw clams are not as popular as raw oysters and tend to be a regional specialty.
Clams on the half-shell are popular in New England and the Mid-Atlantic states, where they are featured on coastal seafood restaurant menus.
Eastern Hard-Shell Clams
Eastern hard-shell clams are graded by size. The most common market sizes are:
Cherrystones, about 2 in. (5 cm) in diameter.
Topnecks, about 11⁄2 in. (4 cm) in diameter.
Littlenecks, 11⁄4 in. (3.5 cm) in diameter or smaller.
Raw Geoduck (also called giant clam)
This huge Pacific clam can weigh up to 9 lb (4 kg), but it is usually harvested at 2–3 lb (1–1.5kg).
In North America, mussels are almost always served cooked.
However, pristinely fresh cultivated mussels from coldwater sources are delicious when served raw on the half-shell.
Raw Fish Specialties
In Japan, perfectly trimmed, precisely cut uncooked fish is traditionally eaten as sashimi or combined with vinegar-seasoned rice in the form of sushi.
There is also a lesser-known tradition of eating raw fish in Italy.
Caviar is the preserved roe, or eggs, of fish.
In Europe, only the roe of certain species of Eurasian sturgeon processed in a special manner can legally be called caviar.
In North America, the term is also used to describe the roe of other fish, provided the type of fish is specified.
For example, the processed roe of Great Lakes whitefish may be called whitefish caviar.
However, when a container is simply labeled caviar, its contents must be Eurasian sturgeon caviar and have no other ingredient except salt.
Eurasian Sturgeon Caviar
Harvested from the Black and Caspian seas, and from their tributary rivers.
Ranked as one of the most highly prized and most expensive foods in the world, typically selling for more than $1,000 per pound.
Referred to as “true caviar” to differentiate wild Eurasian sturgeon caviar from other types.
Eurasian Sturgeon Caviar
Three types of Eurasian sturgeon produce caviar:
Beluga caviar: consists of large separate berries ranging from pale to dark gray in color. It has a mild, buttery, creamy flavor. (Considered the finest type of caviar and is in greatest demand.)
Osetra caviar: consists of medium-sized berries ranging from the very rare golden color to brown and brownish-black. It has a distinctive nutty flavor.
Sevruga caviar: consists of tiny, tightly clustered berries ranging from brown to black. It has a strong, assertive flavor.
Cold Meats for Sandwiches
Cold meats are most frequently used as a filling for sandwiches.
Sandwiches may be made with industrially produced luncheon meats or with meats cooked in-house.
In this chapter, we:
focus on how to roast, poach, and otherwise cook meats to be used in cold sandwiches.
discuss the various ways in which both types of sandwich meats may be presented.
Applications for cold meats
Can be thought of as a portable do-it-yourself sandwich station.
Deli trays usually consist of:
Industrially-produced luncheon meats.
Cheeses sliced thin by machine.
Spreads and condiments.
To carve: to fabricate large cuts of cooked meat into pieces/portions.
Most cooked sandwich meats are carved in the kitchen, out of guests’ sight.
However, some buffet operations feature carving stations or displays at which chefs slice hot or cold meats to order.
Applications for Cold Meats
Guidelines for Making Deli Trays
Line deli trays with lettuce leaves before placing meats and cheeses.
Provide about 4 oz (120 g) total meat and 1 oz (30 g) total cheese per serving, plus about 10% extra.
Provide 1–1.5 fl oz (30–45 mL) total spreads and condiments per serving.
Separate slices of meat and cheese, and fold/roll them into attractive shapes before placing on tray.
Slice rolls and breads before service.
Wrap the deli tray and all accompaniments airtight to prevent drying-out or staling.
Provide the appropriate utensils for serving the meats, spreads, and condiments.
Applications for Cold Meats
Cold Meats for Buffet Presentation
To function as a décor item, a roast must remain largely intact and attractive throughout the service.
Plan ahead to have enough meat both for service and display.
For a smaller number of guests, the chef prepares a large roast and slices one-half to two-thirds of it.
The remaining section is placed on the platter as the focal point of the presentation.
This large, intact section is referred to as the grosse pièce literally “large piece.”
Applications for Cold Meats
When arranged on a platter, with or without a grosse pièce, slices should be arranged in straight or curving lines in attractive patterns.
Sequencing: keeping slices in order as they are cut.
When the food item being sliced has a tapered shape, the arrangement will look best if the slices are sequenced.
Sequenced slices can be reassembled into the original shape of the item before it was sliced.
Applications for Cold Meats
For formal buffet presentations, one or more types of décor may be added to cold meat platters:
Herb bouquets: typically placed on the platter or carving board around the base of the roast.
Carved vegetables and fruits: often added to the platter or carving board as decoration.
Applications for Cold Meats
Attelets : Skewers with an ornamented top.
They are used to create height in the presentation of a cold roast, pâté, or other garde manger item.
Garnitures: Small, attractive composed food items that are self-contained and freestanding on the platter; the French term garniture simply translates as “garnish.”
They are often arranged on a platter of roasted meat or poultry to provide both décor and accompaniment.
Aspic and chaud-froid: The most classic of all décor types.
A coating of aspic gelée or chaud-froid creates an attractive presentation and prevents the meat from drying out.
Preparing Cold Meat Products
Remove as much visible fat as possible from meats/poultry served cold.
When fat cools to room temperature it becomes more solid, and when chilled, it further solidifies into a dense, slick mass.
Cold temperatures dull the taste buds.
You must season meats/poultry intended for cold service more than you would the same product intended for hot service.
Achieve the Appropriate Internal Temperature
Cold preparations of beef, lamb, and game meats should be cooked to a medium rare or medium doneness.
Principles of Cooking Meats to Be Served Cold
Meats and poultry for cold/room temperature service must be cooked ahead of time, cooled, and then held for a time before being served.
Once exposed to the air, their surfaces easily dry out.
Methods to prevent surface drying and ensure a moist mouthfeel:
Once cold meats are carved or otherwise fabricated, baste their surfaces with a small amount of an appropriate stock.
Store poached meat submerged in its cuisson, or poaching liquid.
Keep prepared platters covered with plastic film until service begins.
Serving at the Proper Temperature
Optimal temperature for cold service of meat/poultry is not actually cold.
Both meats and poultry are best when served at cool room temperature, 60°–75°F (16°–24°C), at which the meat’s flavor is most pronounced and its texture is softened, ensuring the best mouthfeel.
Observing Food Safety Procedures
Cold meats and poultry are protein foods that undergo a lot of handling, making them susceptible to contamination by harmful microorganisms.
Be vigilant about sanitation and observing food safety procedures
Cooking Methods for Cold Meats
Of the many methods that can be used to cook meats and poultry, only a few are typically used to prepare them for cold service.
Roasting: The method most frequently used to cook meats and poultry for cold presentation is roasting.
Grilling: Meats and poultry for grilling are sometimes marinated before they are cooked.
Poaching: Lean white meats and white-meat poultry are frequently poached for cold service.
In many of the world’s cuisines, raw meat dishes play an important role.
In Korean and Southeast Asian cuisines, raw beef is featured in salads and snack foods.
In Ethiopian cuisine, chopped raw beef flavored with hot spiced butter is a favorite dish.
Middle Eastern cuisines boast raw lamb mezze as appetizers.
Raw Meat Dishes
Western cuisines feature only two important dishes in which meat is served uncooked (both use beef):
Steak tartare : Hand-chopped, raw beef filet mixed with raw egg yolk and various spicy seasonings and condiments.
Carpaccio : Consists of very thin sliced raw beef filet accented with a mustard mayonnaise sauce.
Guidelines for Preparing Raw Meat Dishes
Do not serve uncooked pork or poultry due to the risk of food-borne illness associated with these foods.
Only beef, lamb, and farmed venison are considered safe for raw service.
Use tender cuts only.
Even after undergoing the physical tenderization of chopping or slicing, tough cuts are unpleasantly chewy when served raw.
Keep the meat very cold at all times.
This is necessary both for food safety and to keep the meat firm for easy cutting.
Guidelines for Preparing Raw Meat Dishes
Trim off all connective tissue and fat from the meat before chopping or slicing it. If any remains, the meat will be unpleasantly stringy and greasy.
Always fabricate the meat by hand—do not attempt to chop beef for steak tartare in a meat grinder.
Even a cleaned and sanitized grinder can harbor harmful microorganisms. In addition, a grinder does not create the proper texture.
Guidelines for Preparing Raw Meat Dishes
For à la carte service, chop or slice the meat to order.
For hors d’oeuvre work or buffet service, prepare the meat at the last possible moment—do not plan to hold the finished dish very long.
Chopped or sliced raw meat can easily become contaminated by harmful microorganisms.
Exposure to air destroys the red pigments in the meat, causing it to quickly change from an attractive red color to an unattractive shade of brown.
Guidelines for Preparing Raw Meat Dishes
Add acidic ingredients, such as lemon juice, to raw meat dishes at the last minute before serving.
Prolonged contact with acidic ingredients gives the meat a cooked texture and discolors it.
Use only freshly thawed pasteurized egg yolk in steak tartare.
Be vigilant in your sanitation practices when serving raw meat. In some areas, food-service operators are required by law to post warnings about the risks of consuming raw meat.
Be sure to know and comply with local regulations.
Cold meats Continued
Once cooked, cooled poultry livers are puréed with softened butter to create a smooth spread that is more rich and dense than a standard liver mousse.
Additional ingredients, such as aromatic vegetables, herbs and spices, spirits, and cream may be added to the mixture.
Due to their high fat content, liver parfaits freeze well.
Liver parfaits are less perishable than liver mousses, as they do not contain raw egg whites.
Parfaits are served as appetizers much in the same manner as smooth liver pâtés.
Crackers or bread typically accompany small molded forms or ramekins of liver parfait.
Alternatively, liver parfait may be used as an hors d’oeuvre component when piped onto a canapé or into a savory profiterole.
Foie gras is defined as the enlarged liver of a goose or duck that is the result of accelerated feeding of a high-calorie diet.
The French term foie gras literally means “fat liver.”
Foie gras ranks along with caviar and truffles as one of the Western world’s most expensive and luxurious foods
When geese and ducks consume many calories over a short period, much of the fat also forms within their livers—these grow abnormally large and acquire an unusually pale color.
When the livers are harvested and correctly prepared, they have a delicious, mild, buttery flavor and a rich, smooth mouthfeel.
Accelerated feeding of geese and ducks is accomplished by utilizing a method known by the French word gavage.
Gavage : Translates from the French as “force-feeding,” although that is not necessarily an accurate description.
Fresh Foie Gras
Due to the extreme perishability of the product, most all foie gras sold outside its immediate production area was originally cooked by a processor prior to sale.
Even after refrigeration became the norm, restaurants purchased prepared foie gras because of the difficulty of cooking it correctly.
During the nouvelle cuisine era, chefs began to serve foie gras hot, slicing and pan-searing raw foie gras to order.
Today, most chefs agree that fresh, domestic foie gras correctly cooked in-house is far superior to processed foie gras in cold presentations.
Grade A Foie Gras:
is firm in texture.
The firm texture results in a higher melt point, making it less difficult to cook correctly.
is pale and even in color.
is rounded oval shape.
weighs at least 11⁄2 lb (700 g).
has large amount of interior veining, yielding large, intact slices.
Grade B Foie Gras:
is flatter in shape.
is smaller than a Grade A liver.
has more interior veining and lower melt point.
Grade C Foie Gras:
is small and may contain visual imperfections.
is typically used for puréed preparations, such as mousses and sauces.
Procedure for Cleaning and Seasoning Fresh Foie Gras
Place the opened foie gras in a bowl set under a gentle stream of room-temperature water.
Flush the foie gras about ½ hour, or until the water runs clear and the foie gras warms enough to become pliable, but not breakable.
Blot the foie gras dry and place it on a freshly sanitized work surface.
Slowly and gently pull the two lobes apart.
Use your fingers or a small, sharp knife to remove any visible membrane and surface blemishes from each lobe.
Lay each lobe on the worktable so the smooth side is down and the rough side is up.
Starting at the narrow, top end of each lobe, slit open the lobe about halfway to the other end and about halfway into its depth.
Use your fingers and, if necessary, sanitized tweezers or needle nose pliers to remove the interior veins.
Grasp the thick top part of the vein network and pull gently while holding back the meat of the liver.
Your goal is to extract the veins without breaking or disturbing the structure of the liver.
Sprinkle the interior and exterior of each lobe with the desired seasoning ingredients.
Wrap each lobe in plastic film, and then seal the wrapped lobes in a plastic bag.
Bury the bag of foie gras in ice and refrigerate 24 hours.
Procedure for Poaching Fresh Duck Foie Gras
Processed Foie Gras and Foie Gras Products
Foie Gras Cuit, Entier: Whole lobes of cooked, seasoned foie gras vacuum-packed and refrigerated or frozen.
Foie Gras Cuit, Morceaux: Pieces of cooked, seasoned foie gras vacuum-packed and refrigerated or frozen.
Bloc de Foie Gras: Foie gras puréed and emulsified with water, and then heat-processed in a can.
Must be at least 98% total foie gras
May contain both goose and duck foie gras.
Parfait de Foie Gras : Puréed and cooked with cream and butter, then canned and heat-processed.
Must contain at east 75% foie gras.
Some varieties contain up to 3% truffles.
Pâté or Mousse de Foie Gras: Similar to parfait, with the addition of chicken livers or unfattened duck livers.
May contain as little as 50% foie gras.
The ancient Jewish sage Hillel the Elder is said to have wrapped meat from the Paschal lamb and bitter herbs between two pieces of old-fashioned soft matzah, flat, unleavened bread, during Passover in the manner of a modern sandwich wrap made with flatbread.
During the Middle Ages in Europe, thick slabs of coarse and usually stale bread, called "trenchers", were used as plates. After a meal, the food-soaked trencher was fed to a dog or to beggars at the tables of the wealthy, and eaten by diners in more modest circumstances.
The first written usage of the English word appeared in Edward Gibbon's journal, in longhand, referring to "bits of cold meat" as a "Sandwich". It was named after John Montagu, 4th Earl of Sandwich, an 18th-century English aristocrat, although he was neither the inventor nor sustainer of the food. It is said that he ordered his valet to bring him meat tucked between two pieces of bread, and because Montagu also happened to be the Fourth Earl of Sandwich, others began to order "the same as Sandwich!"
The Four Basic Sandwich Elements
Virtually all sandwiches are constructed from four basic elements:
Most modern sandwiches include all four basic elements, with the bread and filling acting as the essential elements.
However, without a spread, most sandwiches have a dry mouthfeel; without internal garnishes, they lack textural contrast.
Bread for Sandwiches
The majority of sandwiches are made with leavened breads, which are made with yeast.
Because unleavened breads do not contain yeast to make them rise, they have a flat shape and are also called flatbreads.
Some leavened breads are fabricated to give them a flat appearance as well—these are called yeasted flatbreads.
The primary function of bread as a sandwich element is to encase the filling and enable it to be eaten neatly out of hand.
The bread product you choose for sandwich making must fulfill five requirements:
1. Firm and sturdy enough to hold the filling 2. without falling apart.
3. Tender and moist enough to avoid making the sandwich tough or dry.
Fresh, not stale or dried out.
4. Priced to fit your budget.
5. Shaped and sized to ensure proper portion control and minimal waste.
Breads are classified into four basic market forms:
Industrial bread products
Commercial bread products
Frozen par-bake bread products
Artisan bread products
Breads by Flour Type and Flavor
Breads are primarily classified according to the type of flour from which they are made.
Once that classification is determined, breads can also be categorized by non-flour flavorings added to the dough.
Bread Fabrication Types...
Breads can be shaped or formed in hundreds of ways
Guidelines for Storing Sandwich Bread and Rolls
To prevent drying, do not store any bread product near heat-producing equipment (i.e., ovens or refrigeration compressors).
To prevent rapid staling, do not store any bread product in the refrigerator.
Inspect for mold before each service.
Store soft-crusted breads and rolls wrapped in plastic film or in sealed plastic bags at cool room temperature—do not store in a dark, closed cabinet.
If soft-crusted bread products must be kept longer than 1–2 days, wrap tightly and freeze.
Place in sealed plastic bags as soon as they are completely thawed.
Do not refreeze.
Store crisp-crusted bread products intended for same-day service at cool room temperature.
Keep in micro-perforated bags specially manufactured to prevent drying and surface contamination while allowing moisture to escape.
Alternatively, store in closed cartons or in open plastic containers covered with kitchen towels.
If crisp-crusted bread products must be kept for longer periods, wrap tightly and freeze.
Thaw frozen bread products unwrapped on a rack at room temperature.
Once they are completely thawed and free of surface moisture, immediately proceed with wrapping or recrisping.
To recrisp crisp-crusted breads and rolls:
Place them on a rack set on a sheet tray and bake in a preheated 400°F (200°C) oven, just until the crusts regain their original crispness and the bread reaches an interior temperature of 140°F (60°C).
Cool to room temperature on the rack.
Spreads for Sandwiches
A sandwich spread is a liquid or paste-like dressing usually applied to the bread element of the sandwich.
Sandwich spreads are intended to fulfill several functions:
Form a liquid-resistant barrier that prevents a moist filling from seeping into the bread and making it soggy.
Add moisture and a rich, smooth mouthfeel to sandwiches having less moist fillings.
Help the sandwich hold together by acting as a kind of glue, binding the bread, filling, and internal garnishes to one another.
Sandwich spreads are intended to fulfill several functions (cont’d):
Add a particular flavor or combination of flavors to the sandwich.
Add a particular color to the sandwich’s visual effect.
In à la carte service, the choice of spread is often left to the customer, who specifies it when ordering.
There are some classic sandwiches in which a particular spread, such as mayonnaise on a BLT or Russian dressing on a corned beef special, is dictated by tradition.
Types of Spreads
Vegetable Purées and Fresh Salsas
Ketchups, Relishes, and Processed Salsas
Flavored Oils and Vinaigrettes
The filling is the heart of the sandwich and is considered its main ingredient.
A sandwich filling may consist of a single ingredient or a combination of ingredients.
The most widely used sandwich fillings in North America are industrially processed deli meats.
House-Made Cooked Meats and Poultry
There are several advantages to preparing sandwich meats from scratch.
By choosing from the full range of raw products, you can offer unusual fillings, such as roast lamb or grilled duck.
Bacon makes three important contributions to a cold sandwich:
Cooked crisp; it adds textural interest.
High in fat; it adds richness.
Its salty flavor; it helps season the sandwich.
Any of the semisoft and firm cheeses may be sliced and used as sandwich fillings, either alone or in combination with other ingredients.
Deli cheeses are specially fabricated for use on an electric slicing machine.
Smoked and cured seafood is featured in some sandwiches, particularly in small sandwiches such as canapés.
Bound Protein Salads
Salads made from meats, poultry, and seafood bound with a thick mayonnaise dressing are among the most popular sandwich fillings in North America.
Vegetable and Vegetarian Fillings
Today, most delis, sandwich shops, and restaurants offer a respectable selection of meatless sandwich fillings.
External and Internal Garnishes
External garnish: A piece of food served outside the sandwich rather than included inside it.
Internal garnish: Part of the sandwich that is enclosed within the bread (except in open-face sandwiches made with a single bread slice).
In North America, the most common internal sandwich garnishes are lettuce leaves and tomato slices, although there are many others.
Sandwiches can be categorized into six basic construction types:
Double-decker and multi-decker sandwiches
Long roll sandwiches
A simple sandwich that consists of two slices of bread with the spread, filling, and internal garnishes between them.
A sandwich having one deck, then another layer of filling on top of the ceiling slice, and finally a third slice of bread on top.
A sandwich with a single slice of bread topped with a spread, filling ingredients, and garnishes.
In other words, an open-face sandwich is a sandwich with no lid.
Long Roll Sandwiches
Sandwiches made with long, narrow French and Italian breads can be constructed in two different ways.
Simple long roll sandwich: the rolls are split completely in half horizontally and then filled.
Hollowed long roll sandwich: the roll is slit along one side, opened out, and flattened into a canoe shape.
The Italian Sandwich is probably the best-known long roll sandwich.
Sandwiches made with yeasted flatbreads that are fabricated and baked in a way that gives them a hollow center.
Thin, pliable flatbreads may be rolled with or around a filling and internal garnishes to make wrap sandwiches.
There are two ways to roll wraps:
The Sandwich Station
In small operations with varied menus, there is usually only one garde manger area responsible for salads and cold appetizers, as well as sandwiches.
In large operations, an entire station may be dedicated to sandwiches.
Sandwiches are the main menu items in delis and sandwich shops, so the stations in them are planned expressly for sandwich production.
A well-planned and complete mise en place is essential for effective à la carte sandwich service.
Sandwiches are usually ordered during lunch service, when most customers have limited time; in addition, customers perceive them to be quick to order.
Well-prepared garde manger chefs ensure that the time between the order and arrival of food at the table is brief.
Guidelines for Preparing Sandwiches
Slice enough deli meats and cheeses for the day’s service.
Portion fillings ahead of time.
Place the proper portion scoops near containers of bound protein salad.
Clean and fabricate all garnishes.
When fabricating items portioned by count, make sure each is of the correct size.
Pre-portion when possible.
Prepare all spreads and place in appropriate containers.
Place oils and semi liquid spreads in multi tip squeeze bottles.
Whip or soften butters and semisolid spreads.
Slice breads and rolls.
Guidelines for Preparing Sandwiches
Arrange ingredients in assembly-line fashion.
Place items in such a way that you can use two hands at the same time.
Use color-coded sandwich picks or other appropriate markers to identify orders.
For example, you could use yellow frill picks for a ham sandwich with mustard and clear frill picks for one with mayonnaise.
Have plates, baskets, wrappers, or take-out containers at hand.
Packaging Sandwiches for Take-out and Catering
Sandwiches are ordered to-go more often than any other type of food.
As sandwiches must be neat and easy to eat, it is crucial that they arrive at their destination in good shape.
Even the most delicious sandwich is ruined if it falls apart while being transported.
Customers do not appreciate soggy, oily wrappers and leaky condiment containers.
Most take-out sandwiches are wrapped in a paper product.
Tight wrapping holds sandwiches together, even if they are jostled during transport.
Box Lunch Sandwiches
The main element of most box lunches is some sort of cold sandwich.
Most sandwiches for box lunches are prepared and wrapped in the same way as for take-out, but with the condiment packets on the side to avoid a soggy sandwich.
For catering, sandwiches are arranged on durable or disposable trays in an attractive presentation.
For successful sandwich trays, it is essential to construct the sandwiches neatly and securely.
Plan sandwich trays to consist of an assortment that will suit virtually all guests.
Guidelines for Sandwich Sanitation
Wear food-service gloves when preparing sandwiches. (Change gloves frequently.)
Do not allow a counterperson making sandwiches to handle money.
Wipe knives with sanitizer solution between each task.
Keep perishable fillings, spreads, and garnishes refrigerated during the service.
Keep lids of the sandwich/salad units closed when not in active use.
Regularly wash and sanitize the tops of squeeze bottles after each service, at least once per week.
Cold Hors d’Oeuvres
Understanding Hors d’Oeuvres
An hors d’oeuvre is a small, attractive piece of savory food meant to be picked up and eaten with the fingers. For this reason, hors d’oeuvres are often called finger foods, and are usually served on trays or platters rather than on individual plates.Primarily served at cocktail parties or receptions, they may also be offered at a dinner party before the guests are seated at the table.
Two types of service are used for hors d’oeuvres:
1. Butler service: trays of hors d’oeuvres are carried from person to person by servers. Hors d’oeuvres served in this manner are also called passed hors d’oeuvres
2. Buffet service: trays of hors d’oeuvres are placed on one or more tables. Hors d’oeuvres served in this manner are also called stationary hors d’oeuvres.
Characteristics of Hors d’Oeuvres
Correctly made hors d’oeuvres all have a number of traits in common. Successful hors d’oeuvres are:
*Small, consisting of one or two bites.
*Self-contained and neat to eat.
*Attractive and eye-catching.
*Special or unusual.
*Savory, not sweet.
*Full-flavored and well seasoned.
Hors d’oeuvres are often classified into two broad categories according to the temperature at which they are served.Cold hors d’oeuvres are served cold, cool, or at room temperature. They are the focus of this chapter.Hot hors d’oeuvres are usually turned out by the hot kitchen, as they require cooking equipment not typically found in garde manger stations.
In addition to dividing hors d’oeuvres into the two main categories of hot and cold, chefs also group them by construction type.
There are five major hors d’oeuvre construction types:
2. Wrapped and rolled
3. Picked and skewered
Stuffed Hors d’Oeuvres
When a small piece of food is stuffed and attractively garnished, it is called a stuffed hors d’oeuvre.
Popular foods that can be stuffed as cold hors d’oeuvres:
Mushrooms, cooked or marinated.
Baby beets, steamed and chilled, or pickled.
Slender cucumbers, cut into boats or cups.
Artichoke bottoms, cooked.
Large pitted olives.
Celery, cut into boats.
Belgian endive leaves.
Pullet eggs and quail eggs.
Wrapped and Rolled Hors d’Oeuvres
Wrapped hors d’oeuvres: Consist of a food item or filling encased in a thin sheet of another food item.
Rolled hors d’oeuvres: Consist of foods layered together and rolled into a cylinder. (Also called by their French name, roulades .)When the cylinder is cut crosswise into pieces, the resulting slices have a spiral or pinwheel appearance.
Foods that can be used as wrapper to be filled, or that can be layered and rolled, to make cold hors d’oeuvres:
Thick-sliced cold cuts
Pliable sliced cheeses
Soft-textured lettuce leaves
Cabbage, Swiss chard, and kale, blanched and refreshed
Pasta sheets, cooked and refreshed
Moist, crustless bread, sliced thin
Picked and Skewered Hors d’Oeuvres
Picked hors d’oeuvres: Foods too moist or oily to be eaten neatly with the fingers that are served on a cocktail pick.
Skewered hors d’oeuvres: Foods dry enough to be held directly in the fingers but meant to be dipped in a sauce are also served on picks. Two or three pieces of food can be threaded onto a cocktail pick or bamboo skewer to create a skewered hors d’oeuvre (or an hors d’oeuvre kebab).
Virtually any bite-size food can be picked or skewered. This list includes some of the most popular:
Cold, cubed meats and poultry
Cubed hams, sausages, and other charcuterie items
Pastry Hors d’Oeuvres
Hors d’oeuvres based on pastry are among the most versatile. Pastry hors d’oeuvres are made from several kinds of pastry.
Canapés are miniature open-face sandwiches that are considered the classic hors d’oeuvres.
The French word canapé literally translates as “bed” or “sofa,” referring to the piece of bread, toast, or flat pastry that is the bed on which the other ingredients are placed.
On top of the bed, or base, a canapé has two other elements: a filling, and a garnish.
Serviceware for Hors d’Oeuvres
The serviceware you choose for your hors d’oeuvres can add a great deal to the presentation.
The vessel used for presenting hors d’oeuvres is generally referred to as a tray, though many other types of serviceware may be used.
The Four Elements of Hors d’Oeuvre Presentation
Whether using a tray, platter, or even a basket or bento box, there are four basic design elements.
The hors d’oeuvres
All four elements should combine to create a design that is pleasing to the eye. In addition, it must be easy for the guests to pick up the hors d’oeuvres, and easy for the cooks or servers to refill the trays.
The rim of the tray forms the frame of your design, and should complement the color of both the hors d’oeuvres and the liner.
Neither the hors d’oeuvres nor the décor should extend onto the rim.
If the hors d’oeuvres are to be passed, the combined weight of the tray and the hors d’oeuvres should light enough for a server to easily carry.
Most hors d’oeuvre trays are lined, or covered, before the hors d’oeuvres are placed on them. Liners can be made of cloth, paper, or food.
Linen table napkins: Starched white linen table napkins are the classic tray liner.
Disposable paper doilies: Paper doilies are the practical choice for lining trays because they are disposable and inexpensive.
Large, perfect liner leaves of lettuce, kale, and other leafy vegetables are used to line trays for cold hors d’oeuvres that benefit from contact with a moist surface.
For a formal presentation, trays and platters can be lined with very stiff aspic. This creates a smooth, shiny surface ranging in color from pale golden to rich brown.
The Hors d’Oeuvres
The hors d’oeuvres are the stars of your presentation, and should therefore be the focal point of your design.
Their appearance should not be overwhelmed by the tray liner or by the décor item(s).
Guidelines for Presenting Hors d’Oeuvres
Each hors d’oeuvre should be identical to the others of its kind in size, shape, and garnish.
When you order ingredients for hors d’oeuvres, give detailed product specifications as to size, and order extra to compensate for those items that are too big or too small.
Careful fabrication is also necessary.
Use a ruler or a template to make sure all cuts are consistent.
Make sure all hors d’oeuvres of the same kind are garnished exactly the same.
For most large events, serve trays consisting of one type of hors d’oeuvre in order to:
give the tray a professional appearance.
save time during service, as guests will not linger over the tray trying to decide which hors d’oeuvre to choose.
When serving mixed trays, keep one type of hors d’oeuvre together in a row/section, and avoid creating random arrangement on the tray.
Place hors d’oeuvres in neat rows, concentric circles, or blocks with even spacing between pieces on the tray.
Make sure guests can pick up one individual hors d’oeuvre without touching another.
For many cocktail parties and receptions, hors d’oeuvres are passed or served butler-style.
It is up to the servers to ensure that the guests can enjoy the hors d’oeuvres without undue effort, and that all guests are served equally.
The typical guest is holding a beverage in one hand and has limited ability to deal with the food being served.
The garde manger chef should be ready to guide servers in giving correct hors d’oeuvre service.
Guidelines for Butler Service
Make sure the server knows the hors d’oeuvre’s main ingredients.
The server should announce the name of each hors d’oeuvre as it is presented.
If the hors d’oeuvre contains possible food allergens, their presence should be mentioned.
Try to arrange more than one access point to the event room so servers can reach both ends of the room with full trays.
If this is not possible, instruct servers to periodically hold full trays overhead while passing through the crowd. This way, the guests at the back of the room may be served first.
Guidelines for Butler Service
Offer a paper cocktail napkin along with each hors d’oeuvre served.
Fan the cocktail napkins to make each napkin easy to grasp.
Servers should frequently pass through the event room with an empty tray to collect used napkins, cocktail picks, etc.
Hors d’oeuvre trays should be returned to the kitchen for:
refilling (before they are completely empty).
straightening (if at any time they begin to look wilted or untidy).
Canapés are a special type of hors d’oeuvre whose preparation requires skill and attention to detail.
Of all hors d’oeuvres, they demand the greatest precision.
Canapés have three basic elements:
A base consisting of bread, toast, or sometimes a flat pastry shape.
A filling or topping consisting of a spread or complex salad, or a spread topped with a solid ingredient.
A garnish or garnishes.
Canapé Shapes and Sizes
Canapés may be cut with a knife into squares, diamonds, triangles, or long rectangles called fingers.
Alternatively, they may be punched out with cutters into rounds, crescents, hearts, and other decorative shapes.
Canapés should be bite-sized, or two-bite-sized at most. Their dimensions usually range from 1 to 11⁄2 in. (2.5 to 4 cm) across or in diameter, with 2 in. (5 cm being the largest acceptable size).
When preparing canapés, a clean, freshly sanitized ruler is an essential piece of equipment.
In addition to the bread-like base and the filling or topping, most canapés are finished with a small garnish item.
Many foods are attractive enough to be used as canapé garnishes in their natural form.
There are two basic methods for constructing canapés:
Slab construction method: Uses large, thin, horizontal slices of crustless bread cut from Pullman loaves or other pan loaves.
When mass-producing large numbers of slab canapés, apply the spread with a speed icer, or a pastry bag fitted with a large basket weave tip.
There are two basic methods for constructing canapés:
Individual construction method: Used when the canapés are based on croûtons or slices of baguette, or on pastry shapes. (May also be used for shapes cut from pan loaf slabs).
The individual method is slower and less efficient than the slab method.
It should be used for pan loaf canapés, only if the spread or filling ingredients are so costly that even a small amount of waste would substantially increase food cost.
Cured and Smoked Foods
How Curing Works
To cure: to treat a food with salt to make less hospitable to bacteria, molds, and other harmful microorganisms that cause spoilage.
Virtually all foods, including vegetables and cheeses, can be preserved with salt.
This chapter broadly pertains to all types of animal meat, including domestic meat, wild game meat, domestic poultry and game birds, and various types of fish and shellfish.
Harmful organisms such as bacteria and molds need water to live and grow.
Because salt is strongly attracted to water, it acts as a food preservative by making water unavailable to bacteria in two ways:
1. Salt applied to the surface of a food removes much of the water from it.
2. Some salt is absorbed into the food, which bonds strongly with the remaining moisture in the food—this makes it unable to be absorbed and used by microorganisms.
Types of Cured Foods
Cured foods are prepared and served in several ways.
Some are ready to eat as soon as the curing process is complete (e.g., Gravlax or cured salmon).
Some are cooked, typically by the consumer, after they are cured (e.g., Pancetta or Italian unsmoked bacon).
Some are dried after being cured or during the curing process, then eaten in their dry form without cooking (e.g., Jerky, prosciutto, and dry sausages).
Some cured and dried foods are fully or partially rehydrated by soaking in water before they are eaten; this also removes some of the salt.
These foods are usually cooked after they are soaked. Salt cod and the country hams of the American South are good examples.
Some cured foods are further preserved by cooking and storing them in fat after they are cured. Confit is an example.
Some meats and poultry are lightly cured to season them before they are grilled or roasted.
These cures are only for flavor and, while they slightly increase refrigerated holding times, do not preserve the foods to which they are applied.
Finally, curing is the first step in smoking.
A curing compound is a salt-based mixture of ingredients that usually contains flavoring ingredients, such as sugar, spices, and herbs.
Some cures include additional preserving agents as well.
There are two ways in which a curing compound can be applied to foods.
1. Dry Cures
Based on dry salt and other dry ingredients that are ground or pulverized into a granular or powdered form.
Also called a rub, as the salt and seasonings are rubbed into the meat.
2. Brine Cures
When salt is dissolved in water, the resulting liquid is called a brine.
When salt is dissolved in water to make a curing medium, the resulting liquid curing compound is called a brine cure, also called a wet cure.
Brine cures usually contain other ingredients, such as sugar, spices, herbs, and other flavorings.
A brine cure that has a strong acidic component is called a pickle.
A brine cure can be applied to foods in several ways:
Immerse the food in the brine.
Inject the brine into the flesh with a food injector.
Pump the brine into the flesh through the arteries.
Often a combination of these methods is used.
The most important curing ingredient is salt.
For general curing, most charcutiers and garde manger chefs use a medium grind refined salt.
Medium-grind salts are preferred as they are easy to handle, dissolve quickly in a brine, and can be applied evenly to meat when used in a dry cure.
Many other ingredients are also used as part of a curing mix.
Centuries ago, people discovered that salts derived from certain sources preserved meat better and for a longer time.
Early twentieth-century scientists discovered this was due to the presence of sodium nitrite (NaNO2) and/or sodium nitrate (NaNO3) in the salt.
Two types of tinted curing mix are available for curing:
1. Prague Powder #1: A mixture of 6% sodium nitrite and 94% sodium chloride, plus a small amount of red food coloring. It is the more frequently used of the two types.
2. Prague Powder #2: A mixture of 6% sodium nitrite and 94% sodium chloride with a fraction of a percent of sodium nitrate added. Red food coloring is included to tint the mixture pink.
Although similar, Prague Powders #1 and #2 have different ingredients and are used for different products and procedures—they are NOT interchangeable.
The amount of nitrites and nitrates used in a cure for a given amount of meat depends on several factors:
Type of meat
Type of cure
Length of curing time
Granular sugars can be used in both brines and dry cures, while liquid sugars are used in brine cures only.
The presence of sugar:
counteracts the harshness of highly concentrated salts found in strongly cured products like hams and bacon.
adds to the perception of moistness in cured foods that might otherwise seem dry.
Herbs, Spices, and Other Flavorings
Virtually all herbs, spices, aromatic vegetables, or seasonings used in cooking may be used in curing compound.
The water used to make a brine cure can affect the success of the product being cured.
Unwanted chemicals and trace metals in tap water can create off-flavors and interfere with the curing process.
It is advisable to use filtered or distilled water for making brines.
Foods to be Cured
Beef, Veal, Mutton and Lamb
Poultry and Game Birds
Fish and Shellfish
The Four Phases of the Curing Process
Pellicle: Translucent, tacky skin on air-dried cured products.
Keeps microorganisms and physical contaminants from contacting the meat during storage or further processing.
Prevents the meat from excessive drying during storage or further processing.
Prevents wrapping materials from sticking to the meat during storage.
In cured meats to be smoked:
Captures the smoke’s flavors and passes them into the meat’s interior.
Captures and holds the pigments present in the smoke, giving the product an attractive burnished color.
Immersion brining is a technique in which food is placed in a sanitized, nonreactive container and immersed in brine.
This works best for small items or larger items with a lot of surface area.
What Smoking Adds
The smoke’s aroma penetrates the food.
The flavor compounds in the smoke permeate the food.
Pigments present in the smoke are transferred to the food’s exterior and darken its color.
Certain chemicals found in the smoke enhance its preservation.
The Importance of Curing Before Smoking
Curing before smoking also improves the texture and flavor of the final product in two ways:
Curing accompanied by proper air-drying forms a pellicle that prepares the food to more fully accept the smoke.
Curing seasons the meat with the flavors we associate with smoked foods.
Foods for Smoking
Meats, poultry, and fish are the most common foods to be smoked.
Shellfish items, such as oysters or shrimp, are occasionally smoked.
In general, foods with a high fat content are better for smoking.
Woods for Smoking
The woods most frequently used come from hardwood trees.
Some types of hardwood are much more fragrant and produce amore flavorful smoked product than others.
In cold smoking, foods:
are held at temperatures below 100°F (38°C) during the application of smoke. (A temperature range of 80°–90°F [26°–32°C] is ideal.)
are usually carved into paper-thin slices.
The thin slices showcase the products’ attractive, translucent appearance.
Thin slicing takes into account the powerful flavors of the cure and the smoke.
As connective tissues have not been broken down by heat, many smoked products would be too chewy if cut into thick slices.
In hot smoking, foods:
are surrounded by smoke between 150 and 200°F (65°C and 93°C), and brought to an internal temperature of 165°F (75°C).
take on a different texture and appearance due to the temperature.
Fish changes from translucent to opaque and takes on a visibly flaky texture.
Meat also becomes opaque. Its texture becomes smoother and, in most products, more tender.
No matter which type of equipment you plan to use, your smoker will have three basic features:
A heat source
A smoking chamber
A ventilation/circulation system
Foods Preserved in Fat
Confits : Foods that are first cured and then cooked and sealed in fat.
Rillettes : Foods that are cooked in a flavorful, fatty liquid, shredded, and then sealed in fat. Rillettes are seasoned with salt but not cured.
Terrines : Foods that are sometimes sealed in their baking pans with their own and additional fat.
Procedure for Making Confit
Place meat in sanitized container,
weight and refrigerate
On a stove burner, quickly bring the fat and meat to 200°F (93°C). Cook the meat until it is very tender
Pour ladle of hot fat over the meat
Rillettes and Other Uncured Foods Sealed in Fat
Rillettes is the French name for cooked, shredded meats preserved in fat.
In rillettes and similar fat-sealed charcuterie products, the fat is meant to be eaten along with the meat it surrounds.
Rillettes are typically made from pork shoulder or poultry legs sealed with pork lard or rendered poultry fat.
Seafood rillettes or potted shrimp are sealed with butter.