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Nutrients Part 1

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by

Mary Chenault

on 30 January 2014

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Transcript of Nutrients Part 1

Carbohydrates
Fats
Proteins
Vitamins
Minerals
Water

Nutrients are chemical substances found in our foods that nourish our bodies
Our energy comes from the nutrients in the foods we eat
Energy is used to keep your heart beating, to breathe and to build & repair body tissues
Our bodies use some form of energy all the time, whether sitting, sleeping or riding a bike
Carbohydrates, Fats &
Proteins provide energy
Vitamins & Minerals help release energy in the body

In General . . .
Too Little
Fragile teeth & bones
Osteoporosis
Dairy Products
Milk
Ice Cream
Green Leafy Vegetables
Food Sources
Too Little
Vomiting
Sleeplessness
Fatigue


But it is rare to get too little!
Bran & Wheat Germ
Dry Beans
Eggs (Yolks)
Organ Meat
Yeast
Food Sources
Pantothenic Acid
Functions:
Promotes Growth
Helps the body make cholesterol
Chicken
Eggs
Fresh vegetables
Milk
Liver & Kidneys
Food Sources
Biotin
Functions:
Helps the body break down energy
Forms part of several enzymes
Too Little
Anemia
If Pregnant Loss of Baby
Eggs
Liver
Dark Greens
Food Sources
Folic Acid
Functions:
Helps produce red blood cells
Helps form genetic material
Too Much
Diarrhea
Citrus Fruits
Cabbage
Broccoli
Food Sources
Vitamin C
(Ascorbic Acid)
Functions:
Healthy skin & gums
Helps resist infections & speed healing
Too Much
Ulcers
Liver Abnormalities
Too Little
Cracked Skin
Diarrhea
Pellagra- disease that causes skin lesions, digestive problems and mental disorders
Fish
Liver
Poultry
Food Sources
Niacin
Functions:
Healthy skin
Helps cells use oxygen
Helps body use energy
Too Little
Anemia
Fatigue
Heart Flutters
Meat (no plant sources)
Fish & Oysters
Liver
Eggs
Food Sources
Vitamin B12
(Cobalamin)
Functions:
Helps body release energy
Too Much
Can Cause Dependency
Too Little
Skin Disorders
Cracked Lips
Food Sources
Too Little
Sore Tongue
Dry, Cracked Skin
Milk
Eggs
Liver & Kidney
Dark Green Vegetables
Food Sources
Vitamin B2

(Riboflavin)
Functions:
Helps maintain healthy nose, mouth and eyes
Too Little
Mental Confusion
Leg Cramps
Heart Swelling
Numbness in Feet & Hands
Beriberi- disease of the
nervous system
Cannot get too much of any water soluble vitamin as they are excreted
Too Much
Pork
Liver
Oysters
Whole Grains
Food Sources
Water Soluble
Vitamins
Too Little
Shortages are rare
(for example: result from being on an antibiotic a long time)
Jaundice (especially in infants)
Too Much
Vitamin K
Functions:
Helps blood to clot
Too Little
Blood cells may rupture
Muscles will waste away
Nausea
Blurred Vision
Too Much
Vitamin E (Tocopherol)
Functions:

Helps form red blood cells
Builds strong muscles
Too Little
Weak, soft bones
Illness (Rickets)
Weight loss
Kidney or liver damage
Too Much
Vitamin D (Calciferol)
The Sunshine Vitamin
Functions:
Helps body use calcium and phosphorus
Too Little
Skin & hair Problems
Night Blindness
Skin may have a yellow/orange color
Too Much
Cantaloupe
Dark Green leafy vegetables
Liver
Butter
Corn & Carrots
Food Sources
Vitamin A (Retinol)
Functions:
Healthy skin & hair
Helps eyes adjust

at night
Fat Soluble
Vitamins
Two Types:

1.
Fat Soluble (Stored)

2.
Water Soluble (Excreted)
Vitamins Are:
Vitamins
Complete
15.
Complete
13.
Complete
12.
Incomplete
11.
Complete
9.
Incomplete
8.
Incomplete
7.
Complete
5.
Incomplete
4.
Incomplete
3.
Complete
1.
15.
14.
13.
12.
11.
10.
9.
8.
7.
6.
4.
3.
2.
1.
Directions- Number 1 to 15
Identify the following as incomplete or complete proteins
Quiz
An illness caused from sever lack of proteins in the diet
Stunts growth, causes mental retardation and sometimes death
Kwashiorkor
Eat Legumes-anything grown in a pod (grains, nuts or seeds)
This method is called “Protein Complementarity”
Nature Makes It Simple to Get Enough Protein. . .
Poor vitality & muscle tone
Harder to fight off infections
Too Little
Combine 2 or more incomplete proteins to make a complete protein
Examples: Beans & Rice, peanut butter & bread or spaghetti & tomato sauce
Complete – Animal Sources
2 Types
Theronine
Tryptophan
Histidine
And for children, Arginine
Phenylalanine
Lysine
Isoleucine
Leucine
Valine
Methionine
9 Amino Acids
are
“Essential”
because our bodies can’t make them it is “essential”
that you get them in
your daily diet!
22 Amino Acids
The building blocks of protein
Made up of Amino Acids
Proteins can be used for energy when there are not enough carbohydrates and fats in the diet
10
to
22%
of a person’s daily dietary intake
May need extra when pregnant or nursing
Water excluded, protein makes up
75%
of our body
Protein is constantly breaking down old & building up new cells
Considered the most important nutrient
Main component found in all body cells
Proteins
The body will use protein for the energy it needs and not for building & repairing body tissue
Also . . .
May lack energy, be constipated or be under-weight
Too Little
May lead to being overweight or to dental problems
Too Much
Sugars are simple carbohydrates
Starches & Fibers are complex
Most of your intake should be complex
Simple & Complex
FIBER
(cellulose) – beans, nuts, vegetable drinks, honey, popcorn, legumes & raw vegetables
1. Sucrose - Sugar cane & many fruits
2. Dextrose – Sweet fruits & some vegetables (glucose)
3. Fructose – Ripe fruits & honey (fruit sugar)
4. Maltose – Cereal grains
5. Lactose – Milk (milk sugar)
5 Types of Sugar
SUGAR – (5 types) fruits, soft drinks, honey, sugar, syrup & milk
3 Basic Types
1. Supply the body with energy
2. Help the body use fat and proteins efficiently
Functions
of Carbohydrates
Any carbohydrates that are not burned, are stored as fat
Carbohydrates are made up of;
Carbon
Hydrogen
Oxygen
Carbohydrates, Fats &
Proteins provide energy
Vitamins & Minerals help release energy in the body
In General . . .
Carbohydrates
Fats
Proteins
Vitamins
Minerals
Water
Our energy comes from the nutrients in the food we eat
Energy is used to keep your heart beating, to breathe and to build & repair body tissues
Six
Classifications
of

Too Little
Scaly skin
Mild Depression
Fatigue & nausea
But it is rare to get too little!
Too Much
Diarrhea
Dependency
Too Little
Painful Joints
Swelling
Bruising
Bleeding Gums
Vitamin B6
(Pyridoxine)
Functions:
Helps body use protein
Helps form red blood cells
Vitamin B1 (Thiamin)
Functions:
Helps brain, nerves & muscles function properly
Water-Soluble Vitamins:
Thiamin (B1)
Riboflavin (B2)
Pyridoxine (B6)
Cobalamin (B12)
Niacin
Vitamin C
Folate (Folic Acid)
Biotin
Pantothenic Acid
Green Leafy Vegetables
Cauliflower
Liver
Also, made by bacteria in the intestines
Food Sources
Vegetable oils
Liver
Margarine
Whole grains
Food Sources
Sunlight (not a food)
Fish Oils
Fortified Milk
Food Sources
Incomplete
14.
Complete
10.
Complete
6.
Complete
2.
5.
Stored as fat and not used to make body tissue
Is a waste of money
Too Much
Incomplete – Plant Sources
1. Build and repair body tissues
2. Help form antibodies to fight infections
Functions
of Proteins
STARCH
– breads, cereals, pasta, rice, potatoes and grits
3. Supply the body with fiber
4. Aid in digestion
Should make up about
50%
of a person’s daily dietary intake
Carbohydrates
Nutrients are chemical substances found in our foods that nourish our bodies
Our bodies use some form of energy all the time, whether sitting, sleeping or riding a bike
In recent years, soy and tofu have become popular!
Full transcript