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Mummy Where's My Mummy?
Transcript of Mummy Where's My Mummy?
Nobles and Priests
Merchants, Craftsmen and Scribes
Farmers and Unskilled Workers
Slaves Men: Men were responsible for teaching their sons their own trade. They were also responsible for protecting the household. Men also were depicted as slightly superior to women. Men had more options for occupation.
Women: women were theoretically treated with the same rights as men were. they were allowed to buy, sell, and own property. They could claim some of their husband’s land when he died, and many other things that made them equal to men.
Children: The word for children was often used for servants. Even though that is true, children were of significant economic value to the family. They were taught by the parents and quizzed in order to earn the right to inherit their father’s profession. Social status in Ancient Egypt was displayed prominently. The king made up the highest tier, under him/her were the nobles and priests. Merchants, craftsment and scribes consisted of the third tier. Next, farmers and unskilled workers, followed by slaves.
However, under the law the Ancient Egyptians treated everyone equally. Whether peasant or a noble, the law did not favor anyone. The only exception to this rule were the slaves. Slaves did not have any rights in Ancient Egypt.
Compared with Ancient Greece and Rome, women had a greater personal choice and opportunities for achievement. Women could own and sell land, marry, divorce, and make contracts What most Egyptian men could accomplish, generally Egyptian women were able to also. The Book of the Dead is a collection of spells and writings that was placed in tombs as a way of guiding the ancient Egyptian souls on their journey to the afterlife.
In the book were accompanying pictures called vignettes. Vignettes were a symbolic representation of a spell. These were given to the dead on their treacherous journey to the underworld.
The book was developed after the pyramid texts and coffin texts. The texts eventually evolved and were compiled into the Book of the Dead.
The earliest Book of the Dead on record dates to the mid-fifteenth century BCE.
The texts are divided into individual spells or chapters, which total almost two hundred . If the owner of a Book was wealthy he might hire a scribe to write down his personal choice of spells. Other less wealthy clients had to make do with a ready written text, a template, in which spaces had been left for the insertion of the name and titles of the buyer. 3000 BC - Upper and Lower Egypt Unite
2650 BC - Djoser Builds First Pyramid
2600 BC - Pyramid of Giza Built
1483 BC - Queen Hatsheput Dies
1350 BC - Akhenaten Takes Throne
1325 BC - Death of Tutankhamen
1278 BC - Death of Seti I
1069 BC - Amun Priests Split the Country
664 BC - Assyrians Take Over Egypt
525 BC - Persians Conquer Egypt
343 BC - Egypt Falls to Second Persian Invasion
332 BC - Alexander the Great Enters Egypt
305 BC - Ptolemy I Rules Egypt
30 BC - Egypt Under Roman Rule
30 BC - Cleopatra Comits Suicide The Rosetta stone is an ancient Egyptian granodiorite stele with a decree issued at Memphis in 196 bc. The decree has three scripts the top part is ancient Egyptian hieroglyphs the middle part has Demotic and the bottom part is ancient Greek. The Egyptian hieroglyphs only the last fourteen lines can be seen. The hieroglyphs were deciphered in 1822. The Rosetta stone was originally placed in a temple but was later moved around early Christian or medieval period. It was rediscovered by a French soldier in 1799. The Rosetta stone was written by priests in Egypt saying all the good things that the pharaoh did to the people and the priests. It was found in a small village called Rosetta and that is where the name comes from. Amenhotep was a controversial pharaoh because he didn’t use the traditional religion which was polytheism. Instead he used a cult which worshiped Alten which was the disc of the sun in ancient Egyptian mythology. This caused anger by the people and the people started to rebel. So after his death the people went back to worshipping their old gods. Some Egyptians went into slavery because of debts and others to leave poverty. Some were in slavery because they were criminals or prisoners of war. If your parents were slaves it means that you are also a slave. Sometimes people were abducted and forced into slavery. The population of slaves varied by what pharaoh was in power. There are various pharaohs that went through Egyptian history as some of the best and most important people to the Ancient Egyptians. Some of the examples of powerful pharaohs are: Tutankhamen (King Tut), Ramses II, Queen Hatshepsut, and Queen Cleopatra. All of these people are important in their own special ways and are acknowledged for their help.
The first important pharaoh is named King Tut. He is well renowned for being the most mysterious of all pharaohs especially the way he had died. He inherited the kingdom at the age of nine when his father (Aknatoun) that pharaoh died. When King Tut took over, the Egyptian empire was divided. King Tut renounced the new religion that his father had acquired and brought back his ancestors old religion. He expanded the empire and he regained the nation’s prosperity.
The second pharaoh is Ramses II. Ramses II is probably one of the most prolific of the Ancient Egyptian pharaohs, bearing over 100 children and over a dozen wives. He is well regarded as the builder of more temples and statues than any of the other Ancient Egyptian pharaohs. He is known as Ramses the Great for his contributions to Egypt, including his war campaigns to the Mediterranean and into Nubia, as well as his construction projects, such as cities, temples and tombs. Ramses II accomplished during his life time more than any other pharaoh had done. He died from a variety of health problems but he had lived a full life.
Last but not least is the pharaoh Queen Hatshepsut. She came to power because her father had passed away and had no sons. This lovely lady that dressed like a man ruled Egypt with an iron fist. She was well known for expanding trade relations and building a number of impressive temples. One of the most famous creations was a very well-known shrine in Deir-al-Bahari. Her rule over this vast empire ended when she had mysteriously disappeared without a trace. In ancient times the country of Egypt was generally divided into two sections, known as Upper and Lower Egypt.Lower Egypt is to the north and is that part where the Nile delta flows into the Mediterranean Sea. Upper Egypt is to the south from the Libyan desert down to just past Abu Simbel.The reason for this apparent upside-down naming is that Egypt was considered the "Gift of the Nile" and as such everything was measured in relation to it. The Nile enters Egypt at the top, winding its way down until exiting via the fertile delta into the Mediterranean Sea under Lower Egypt.Today there are two principal channels that the Nile takes through the river's delta. In pharonic times there were three and these were known as "the water of Pre", "the water of Ptah" and "the water of Amun".Upper Egypt was known to the Pharaohs as Shemau and was divided into twenty-two areas called nomess. The first nome was roughly where modern Aswan is and the twenty-second was at modern Atfih, just to the south of Cairo.The capital of the Middle Kingdom was at a place known as The Faiyum. This is an area of about 850 square miles of land that are wartered by an offshoot of the Nile called the Bahr Yusuf.Lower Egypt was known to the Pharaohs as To-Mehu. This part of the country was also divided into nomes; however, as the place was mostly undeveloped scrubland, the organisation of the nomes underwent several changes. Ultimately there were twenty nomes and the first of these was at Memphis.The deserts were not seen as part of the country really. They were just the wastelands that surrounded them and kept the foreigners out. They were considered to be areas that were there to be exploited (like other lands) but should not be considered as a part of the administrative kingdom. Therefore, the nomes were restricted to Kemet ("the black"), their name for the dark soil deposited by the Nile floodwaters.
Comparison of Upper and Lower Egypt:
Lower Egypt: Lower Egypt is known as Northern Egypt because it is downriver along the Nile. Lower Egypt is the northern-most section of Egypt stretching from just south of modern-day Cairo to the Nile Delta at Alexandria.Lower Egypt's landscape is dominated by the Nile delta at Alexandria. The deltal region is well watered, crisscrossed by channels and canals. There are marshy areas and the mosquitoes can be very annoying.The climate is milder than the climate in Upper Egypt. Temperatures are less extreme and there is more rainfall in this area. The Lower Egyptians' dialect and customs historically varied from those of the Upper Egyptians. Even in modern times, Lower Egypt is much more industrialized, and influenced by trade and commerce with the rest of the world.
Upper Egypt: Upper Egypt is known as Southern Egypt because it is upstream, closer to the source of the Nile. Upper Egypt is a narrow strip of land that extends from the cataract boundaries of modern-day Aswan to the area south of modern-day Cairo.Historically, Upper Egypt's land was more isolated from activities to the north.There were a number of differences between Upper and Lower Egyptians in the ancient world. They spoke different dialects, and had different customs, needs and interests. Many differences and the tensions they create still exist in modern times.The modern Egyptian government has tried to encouragge people to cultivate and occupy the region called margin land. The margin land is land that is located between the flood (or alluvial) plain and the desert. The land bridge between Asia Minor and Egypt helped Egypt establish trade with countries in Asia Minor. The helped Egypt’s economy. The down side to the land bridge is that enemy’s would be able to freely get to Egypt without boats to slow them down, it also made it easy for them to leave. Ptah-hotep was the first minister in the 5th dynasty of Egypt. He created the Maximums of Ptah-Hotep, Which was one of the earliest Egyptian wisdom. It was manly written for young men trying to assume civil offices. Presentation by Kari Presentation by Andre Ra- Ra was said to have created himself. He was the Sun, and then he made the other gods. He made Shu and Tefnut rather unknown deities, but together they bore Geb and Nut. Ra had the power to create mankind and gods alike. Ra was responsible for fighting his way through horrible monsters in the night in order to rise the next morning. List Ten Major Egyptian Gods and Write the God's History, Powers and Responsibilities List Ten Major Egyptian Gods and Write the God's History, Powers and Responsibilities Geb- Son of Shu and Tefnut, brother of Nut. Geb was married to his sister Nut who bore four children. Geb was the god of the earth. As the god of the earth, Geb was responsible for the plants of the earth and securing the roots of seeds. He was also responsible for the dead in their tombs.
Nut- Nut was the sister and wife of Geb. Her children were; Osiris, Isis, Set(h), and Nephthys. because she bore the deities successively on the last five days of the year, she is sometimes called the “Mother of the gods”. Nut was responsible for swallowing Ra at night and giving birth to him in the morning. She had the power to hold up the sky all day. Osiris- Husband/brother of Isis and brother to Seth and Nephthys. Osiris inherited the throne from Geb, but was murdered by Seth, who wanted to take the throne. When Osiris died he became the king of the underworld, even though Isis tried to resurrect him. Osiris was responsible for judging souls on weather or not the should be reborn in the afterlife. He had the power to judge you unfit for rebirth.
Isis- Daughter of Geb and Nut, and sister/wife of Osiris. According to myth, Isis served at Osiris’s side when he was king, searched madly for his body when seth killed him. When she found what was left of his body, she used magic to bring him back enough that she became pregnant by him. She gave birth to Horus. She was Osiris’s devoted wife, even in death. She also had the power to use her magic to make the first cobra. List Ten Major Egyptian Gods and Write the God's History, Powers and Responsibilities Set- Seth/Set was the brother of Osiris, Isis, and brother/husband of Nephthys. He killed Osiris and chopped his body into 14 pieces and threw them across Egypt to gain the throne. It worked, he became king but then he had to deal with Horus when he grew up. The fighting between Seth and Osiris personify the conflict between the Nile’s fertility and the surrounding storms and, which Seth represents. Seth was responsible for causing chaos and storms. Seth had the power to cause and control thunderstorms.
Horus- Horus was the son of Isis and Osiris and heir to the throne. Knowing that Seth killed Osiris, Isis raised Horus to avenge his father. So when Horus was of age, he challenged and defeated Seth taking back the throne. Horus was the sky god, represented as a falcon. List Ten Major Egyptian Gods and Write the God's History, Powers and Responsibilities Nephthys- Nephthys was the husband of Seth but she seduced Osiris into conceiving Anubis. the event only fed Seth’s hatred for Osiris. Nephthys is portrayed as a loyal friend to Isis by helping her look for Osiris and put his body back together.
Anubis- Son of Osiris and Nephthys. Anubis is responsible for the process of mummification and was said to be present during the embalming process. He was also responsible for navigating souls to Osiris and weighing the heart against the feather of justice to see if the heart was weighed down from guilt.
Bast-The daughter of Ra, Bast was both a warrior for Ra, and a protector of pregnant women. She was the personification of the soul of Isis, being both submissive and belligerent. List Ten Major Egyptian Gods and Write the God's History, Powers and Responsibilities Bast-The daughter of Ra, Bast was both a warrior for Ra, and a protector of pregnant women. She was the personification of the soul of Isis, being both submissive and belligerent. The success of ancient Egyptian civilization came partly from its ability to adapt to the conditions of the Nile River Valley. The predictable flooding and controlled irrigation of the fertile valley produced surplus crops, which fueled social development and culture. With resources to spare, the administration sponsored mineral exploitation of the valley and surrounding desert regions, the early development of an independent writing system, the organization of collective construction and agricultural projects, trade with surrounding regions, and a military intended to defeat foreign enemies and assert Egyptian dominance. Motivating and organizing these activities was a bureaucracy of elite scribes, religious leaders, and administrators under the control of a Pharaoh who ensured the cooperation and unity of the Egyptian people in the context of an elaborate system of religious beliefs.