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Animals vs. Plants

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deahneece ridgell

on 8 April 2016

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Transcript of Animals vs. Plants

animal pollination
plants are specialized to attract and reward animals
rewards can be:
nutrition
calories
sex pheromones
safe, warm shelter
Mutualisms
Mutualisms that occur between an organism and algae generally trade the same things.
algae provide O2, food source, and toxins that repell predators
coral reef plants provide shelter, access to sunlight, CO2, nutrients from its waste, UV absorbing pigments that reduce the rate of mutation in the algae
Reproduction
Asexual
Reproduction
"perfect flower" has male and female parts
allows them to self fertilize and/or out cross
deiecious plants (one is a male and the other is female) must out cross
monoecious plants (hermaphrodites) can do either
Leguminous plants (legumes) & rhizobium bacteria
bacteria fixes N2 for legumes (nitrogenase)
legumes provide shelter, O2, ATP, NADPH
Relevance?
legumes have opportunity to colonize nitrogen deficient habitats
Application?
natural soil fertilizer
nutritional relevance?
a meal with legumes &cereal= all amino acids
Animals vs. Plants
By: Dee-Dee Ridgell
Animals
Plants
Symbiosis that is beneficial to both organisms
gained benefits they wouldnt have if they lived independently
Some reef building coral show dual ways to feed.
day: feed 80% off of algae
night: use their tentacles to capture their prey
*zooxanthellae- algae in the coral's endodermal cells
*some coral have a branching structure.
the advantage?
it increases the amount of obtainable sunlight
Jelly fish
day: solar track near the surface to gain more sunlight
night: migrate into deeper waters to uptake the nutrients from debris
Types of (oceanic) mutualisms
reef bulding coral and dinoflagellate algae
porifera and dinoflagellate algae
molluscs and dinoflagellate algae
cnidaria and dinoflagellate algae
Microbial mutualists (fungi & bacteria) & our gut
microbes provide tools for development, regulation, infectious disease, nutrition, and medicine
medical applications
they can treat certain things
Plants and fungi
Mycorrhizae (fungi root)
Rhizobium Bacteria Application
increases plant root surface area and absorption capacity
decreases malnutrition in plants
plant provides carbohydrates
forest ecology relevance
increases many things nutrient availability & plant tolerance being important
Connects root systems
allows plants to communicate
allows an exchange of nutrients
Lichens
lichen are many single celled algae (cyanobacteria) embedded in fungus mycelium
physical connection between algae and hyphae allows for nutrient exchange
cyanobaceria provide carbohydrates
fungus provides sunlight access, minerals, water, and safe shelter
primary producers in some ecosystems
introduces biologically useful nitrogen into ecosystems
commercial relevance?
dyes
perfumes
potential drug sources
individual makes an exact genetic replica (clone) of itself
no fusion of male and female gametes
some disadvantages
reduces the probability of adapting to environmental changes
negative mutations will be passed to all children
methods of asexual reproduction
parthenogenesis (diploid or haploid female gamete that develops into an embryo without fertilization)
fragmentation followed by regeneration
fragment develops into a mature clone of the parent
fission
budding
attached buds form a colony of interconnected clones
detached buds form new individuals and colonies
Asexual or Sexual
Echinoderm Larvae
they produce more offspring by immediately sexually reproducing after asexual reproduction
done in hostile environments
Sexual
fusion of egg and sperm
disadvantages
injury or death from the act or competition
STD's
searching for a mate
advantages
genetic variation
improved parenting due to social cohesion (emotional bonding)
Best sexual reproducers?
hermaphodites
they have both male and female reproductive organs which allows each individual to interact with any member
organisms that can go through sex reversal
males can transform into females and vice versa
octopi
they can temporarily camoflauge as a female to deter the male trying to mate
organisms who can switch between parthenogenesis and sexual reproduction
Aquatic Sexual Reproduction
exteral reproduction
eggs and sperm are released simutaneously
sperm fertilize the egg outside of the body
pollination (transfer of pollen from anther to stigma) allows for immobile plants to sexually reproduce
types of pollination
wind pollinated
plants make lightweight, aerodynamic pollen
males are specialized to release pollen and females are specialized to capture
seed dispersal is essential for sexual reproduction
reduce competition between parent and offspring
increases probability of colonizing new and favorable habitats
seed dispersal can be done by:
wind
water
animal
seeds benefit from being in the digestive tract
*asexual reproduction
is the same concept as animals*
Hormones
endocrine glands and cells are connected to the circulatory system in order to facillitate hormone transport throughout the body
hydrophobic hormones are carried in the blood by hydrophilic proteins
hydrophilic proteins are also used for intra cellular transport of hydrophobic hormones
Signal Recognition
1. target cell has a receptor within the cell membrane for hydrophilic hormones
*hydrophilic hormones CANNOT pass through the cell membrane*

2. target cell has an intra cellular receptor for the hydrophobic hormone
*hydrophobic hormones can pass through cell membranes*
insulin and glucagon maintain glucose homeostasis
PTH maintains calcium homeostasis in adults
PTH and calcitonin in younger ages
Homeostasis
Negative Feed Regulation
the response removes the initial stimulus and consequently stops the process
ex. restoration of homeostasis stops hormone secretion
secretion of hormones by the anterior pituitary gland is regulated by hypothalmic releasing and inhibiting hormones
process of temperature homeostasis is:
hypothalamus
anterior pituitary
thyroid glands
target cells
increased heat release
restoration of temperature
Nervous system and endocrine system
Body temperature homeostasis is a concept worth remembering
-37*C/99*F
Environmental Stress Response
Integration of Nervous system and endocrine system
Hypothalamus makes ADH and Oxytocin
Hypothalamus regulates the anterior pituitary
Appetite
Stimulates appitite
Grelin
Orexin
NPY
Reduces appetite
Leptin
Insulin
PYY
Functions of Oxytocin
Puberty
estrogen is responsible for female
testosterone is responsible for male
Testosterone is also responsible for:
bone density in women
musculature in women
libido (interest in sex) in women
Adipose tissue has endocrine functions
Plant Hormones
plants use hormones to initiate the proper response to internal and external stimuli
target cells use receptors and signal transduction pathways to recognize and respond
many hormones are premade and stored within the vacuole
reduces response time
transport of hormones
among cells - Plasmodesmata
throughout plant - vascular tissue
xylem - up the plant
phloem - down the plant
Hormones coordinate
organ growth
growth= cell division and elongation
cytokinins stimulate cell division in roots and shoots
auxin stimulate cell elongation in roots and shoots
gibberellins and brassinosteroids stimulate cell division of stem cells in shoots
Senescence (Aging)
ethylene stimulates
cytokinin delays
Hormones coordinate
Sexual reproduction
auxin and gibberellin are responsible for organ development around seeds
requires cell division and elongation
ethylene coordinates reipening process
abscisic acid (ABA) maintains seed dormancy until favorable conditiions are detected
gibberellins coordinate seed germination when conditions are met
Environmental stimuli
abscisic acid coordinates response to water stress
closes stomata to prevent water loss
stimulates root growth afterbriefly inhibiting it
auxin coordinates growth toward light
increases interception with light and consequently increases photosynthesis
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