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A-Level Smart Materials DCA
Transcript of A-Level Smart Materials DCA
Know the reasoning behind why they are used.
See opportunities for using them in your own concepts. Smart Materials Materials whose physical properties change in response to an input Modern Materials Materials that have only been available in their present form since the 1960s/70s. SMART MATERIALS Thermochromic Pigments Phosphorent Pigments Shape Memory Alloys Piezoelectric Devices Smart Fluids / Grease Electroluminescent Wires Glow Sticks Smart Textiles Quantum Tunneling Composites Electronic Smart Glass Thermochromic
Pigments changes colour in response to a change in temperature
Used in many different products and for a variety of different uses Thermocolour Film
Contain a liquid crustal which changes colour when heated.
Why will this be a good idea? Phosphorescent Pigments Absorb Light Energy and store it away until it is needed, at which point it will gradually be released.
GLOWS IN THE DARK Electroluminescent Wires Inside the tube is a CENTRAL CONDUCTOR wire and then a number of OUTER CONDUCTORS
Central Conductor is coated in a semi-conductor material and the outer conductor is coated in PHOSPHOR
Current is passed through the inner and outer wires Glow Sticks Uses a Chemical Reaction that releases energy that cause it to light up.
Light providing is quiet high to start off with, but eventually lowers to a "normal level"
Use for Parties/Raves but can also be used for Emergency Lighting Smart Textiles Is like Smart Materials, it is just Textiles that react to its environment.
Also known as "E-Textiles"
Most practical Smart Textiles use QUANTUM TUNNELLING COMPOSITES Quantum Tunnelling Composites Metal Filled
Apply Pressure and Polymers change from an Insulator to a Conductor Shape Memory Alloys Made out of NITINOL (Nickel & Titanium Alloy)
Metals that respond to the stresses/strains put upon them Piezoelectric Devices Input/Stress is placed upon a quartz crystal or polycrystalline material called PZT to produce a small electric charge Piezoelectric Sensors Charge given out is proportional to the stress applied
"the more you put in, the more you get out"
Used for Burglar Alarms & Sensor Mats Piezoelectric Actuators does the opposite of a sensor
when voltage is applied, a small movement to the material is produced
Used in valves and machinery Electronic Smart Glass Glass that changes from transparent to dark when a voltage is applied
Can also help control heat loss.
Where do you think this will be used? Smart Fluids / Grease Smart Grease Controls the rate of movement between 2 surfaces so it remains constant
Used in Glove Compartments, Sliding Phones & Noise Control in Washing Machines Smart Fluids When shaken or stirred vigourously it changes to a solid.
When the shaking stops, it changes back into a liquid MODERN MATERIALS Fibre Optics Liquid Crystal Displays Glulam Kevlar/Nomex Carbon Fibre Coated Metals Metal Foams Flexible Plywood
/ MDF Aeroply / Haplex / Hexaboard Fibre Optics Considered a Modern Material, but have been around since 1870.
Light travels down these wires giving a signal of either 0 or 1 Much more efficient than Copper Wires
Used in transmitting data such as Internet connection Liquid Crystal Displays (LCD) Liquid Crystals are Carbon-Based Compounds
These crystals have a small current passed through them which means that light is shut off from the crystals
Used in items such as Calculators, Laptops & Mobile Phones
Can either be BACKLIT or REFLECTIVE Backlit Reflective Engineering Timbers Also known as Glulam (Glue Laminated Timber)
Used the best timber (ie no knots or deformities)
Curves are also possible and it can span large areas Kevlar 5 times the strength to ratio of Steel
Used for bullet/knife proof vests as the fibres are woven flat Nomex Provides further protection against Heat
Used by Racing Car Drivers & Firefighters When mixed with a polymer, it can produce armour plating for Helicopters and Helmets Carbon Fibre Made up of Carbon Fibres, which are woven into a cloth.
Resin bonds them together, which differs based upon it's requirements.
Forced into the shape of a mold and then placed into a large oven called a AUTOCLAVE Coated Metals Polymer applied to mild steel sheets and alluminiums
Usually PET or PP
Used in tins as it will not taint the food quality and won't react with the food
Good Chemical Resistance
Nickel Coated Steel is another form, which provides the protection of Stainless Steel at a cheaper cost. Metal Foams Metals that can be foamed in the same way that Polymers can
When placed between solid sheets of the same material, it can produce a lightweight but rigid material
Very good for Impact Resistance Titanium
High Strength to Weight Ratio
Corrosion Resistant Works like Clay but is 99% silver
Clay Binder is added to allow it to have a Clay like texture
Baked after it is dried so that the metal is fused together.
What are the benefits? Very Fine Fibres so they can be woven together tightly so it can be waterproof but also lightweight and breathable.
Water cannot enter the fabric but sweat is able to pass through ensuring the user is able to maintain a steady body temperature Micro-Encapsulation Chemicals applied to the Microfibres through the use of capsules hidden in the fabric.
The capsules break and release these chemicals
Can be used for Medical Purposes or for Anti-Bacterial Purposes Phase Change Materials Absorbs the heat as the User releases it, and then stores it until it can feel the body cooling down.
Micro-encapsulation is held within the Polymer which allows the Phase Change
Good for extreme weather conditions i.e. used for Arctic Expeditions Dichroic Glass Dichroic means "2 Colours"
Glass is coated with thin layers of Metal Oxides and Quartz Crystals
Transmits AND Reflects Light
Can control the quality of the reflected light Flexible MDF Grooves are cut into the material which means it can be slightly curved
More Layers will make it more rigid Flexible Plywood Only 3 layers
2 outer layers are much thicker and open grained than the inner layer
Curve is based upon the direction of the grain Aeroply High Quality, Thin Plywood
Light Weight with Good Strength Maplex Similar to MDF, but doesn't have the toxic resins in Hexaboard Embossed with a Hexagonal Pattern so it can be walked on. Exterior Quality Birch Plywood, with a hard phenolic resin laminated surface Exam Question In Pairs, answer the following on a PowerPoint Slide 6(a) For each of the following materials, explain in detail why it is suitable for the product listed in the table below. Your answer should make reference to; product function
product manufacture MATERIAL
(i) Shape Memory Alloy
(ii) Photo Quality Cartridge Paper
(iii) Polymorph PRODUCT
Point of Sale Display
Modelling a Prototype Toothbrush Handle (6 marks for each) To find this, go onto PREZI.COM/EXPLORE and search for A-Level Smart Materials DCA