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Education and inequality

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Alex Delling

on 26 November 2012

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Transcript of Education and inequality

Home School Educational Inequalities and Achievement School Home Class Ethnicity Cultural Economic Cultural Capital-
Bourdieu Home Deprivation Theories
Language-
- Talking - Hart & Risley (1995)
- Speech codes- Bernstien (1975)
Parental interest-
- Parents evening- Douglas (1964)
- WC lack of interest- Fernstein (1998) What they found and a criticism Poverty-
Positional theory- Bourdon Material deprivation Task- Make a list or discuss examples for the following question. What material necessities might children in poverty lack, resulting in poor grades at school?

Think about costs of education, housing and diet and health Refers to poverty and a lack of necessities such as adequate housing and income Criticism of cultural deprivation Keddie (1973)- Victim blaming. Culturally different not culturally deprived. Should challenge teachers anti-working class prejudices.

Troyna and Williams (1986)- 'Speech hierarchy. The problem is not the child's language but the schools attitude towards it.

Parental interest- May want to help but work long hours, lack the knowledge to do so, get put off by middle class atmosphere Douglas, J. (1964)Home and School. Douglas studied a large group of children born in 1948 and followed them through their careers. He examined their entry into secondary school.

Findings
- Although he noted other factors too, the single most important factor determining educational success was - parental interest.

- This was based on the evidence that middle class parents attended parents evening more frequently. Visited school less often and were less likely to discuss their children's progress with teachers. In pairs discuss criticism of this research (2 mins) Criticism of material deprivation Meritocracy Parental interest Lets try that mock interview again So, why do you want to be an accountant? Positional theory Raymond Boudon argued that positional theory determined educational success or failure.





It was your position in the class structure that gave you an advantage, or a disadvantage, in the competitive world of education.
- Schools may help children to succeed.
- Cultural, political, religious values of the family may sustain motivation, despite poverty. Boudon 1984

Using positional theory he explained how much harder it is for working class children to progress in education. He found that working class children suffer as they try to do well in education. He found that being successful is often at odds with their background. Ultimately exam success and gaining a good occupation moves them into a middle class arena thus giving them problems when they interact with their ‘old life’ (working class friends, family etc). Middle class children suffer no such conflicts as expectations of friends and family are consistent with exam and career success. They continue along the typical middle class route and have no conflicts.

Task- Discuss with the person next to you? (2 mins)
What problems might the now middle class person experience when they interact with their ‘old working class life’.
Does anyone know people that have moved from working class to middle class? Did it have any problems?
In the context of the current recession, how could it work the other way? Could this produce conflicts? Cultural capital Who do you think is more 'posh'? Cultural capital Knowledge, attitudes, values, language, tastes and abilities of the middle class Like wealth, it gives an advantage to those who possess it The education system favors dominant middle class culture. Task- Applying to university.
Discuss in pairs- How might the open days, application process, interviews, be different for a WC and MC pupils. Who might it benefit? Bourdieu argues that both cultural and material factors are interrelated. Social class and educational performance.

What is social class? Registrar General's Occupational Scale
MC
I Professional occupations e.g doctors and lawyers.
II Managerial and lower professional occupations- e.g managers and teachers.
IIIN- Non-manual skilled occupations- e.g office workers.
WC
IIIM Manual skilled occupations- e.g bricklayers, coalminers
IV Semi-skilled occupations- e.g postal workers.
V Unskilled occupations- E.g porters, dustmen.

Task
In pairs address the following questions?
1.How does the nature of the work that the middle class do, differ from the working classes?
2. What do you think the scale is based upon?
2. Are there any of the 5 who you think are in the wrong positions. Attainment of five or more GCSE grades A* to C: by parental NS-SEC, 2002, England & Wales Social class and educational performance Table 3- Higher education and social class Table 2- Free school meals and educational performance Parental and family circumstances impact upon GCSE attainment. In 2002, 77 per cent of children in year 11 in England and Wales with parents in higher professional occupations gained five or more A* to C grade GCSEs. This was more than double the proportion for children with parents in routine occupations (32 per cent).

The gap in GCSE attainment levels by parental socio-economic group increased in the 1990s. In 1992, 60 per cent of children with parents in managerial or professional occupations attained five or more GCSEs grade A* to C. This was 44 percentage points more than the proportion for children with parents in unskilled manual occupations. In 1998 this gap rose to 49 percentage points. By 2002 the gap between children with parents in higher professional occupations (broadly equivalent to managerial/professional occupations) and those with parents in routine occupations (broadly equivalent to unskilled manual occupations) had fallen back to 45 percentage points.

Like attainment at school, participation in further or higher education is strongly influenced by people's social and economic background. In 2002, 87 per cent of 16 year olds with parents in higher professional occupations were in full-time education. This compares with 60 per cent of those with parents in routine occupations, and 58 per cent with parents in lower supervisory occupations. However, once people's prior attainment is taken into account the impact of social background decreases significantly. Example report paragraph Labelling Self fulfilling prophecy Pupil subcultures School To label someone is to attach a meaning or definition to them. What might be the teachers characteristics of the ideal pupil?
How might these students be labelled by teachers?
Any criticism? Interactionist sociologists- study small scale, face to face interactions between individuals. Interested in how people attach labels to one another and the effects this has on those who are labelled.

Task-
Read the particular study that is on your table. You will tell the class what your study is about.

Who conducted the study?
Where was the study conducted?
What did they find?
Then think- What effect this could have on working class pupils? Studies Streaming involves separating children into different ability groups. Each ability is then taught separately.

Task- Disscuss (2 mins)
Do you think this is a good idea?
What would be better? Streaming Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 The teacher labels a pupil (e.g intelligent) and on the basis of this label makes predictions of them (e.g you will get high marks). The teacher treats the pupil accordingly, acting as if the prediction is already true (e.g give them more attention). The pupil internalises the teachers expectation, which becomes part of his self image. He actually becomes the kind of pupil the teacher believed him to be in the first place (gains confidence, tries harder and is successful).
Task-
In your own words write a paragraph for the essay using the self fulfilling prophecy and examples.
OR
Either draw a cartoon of this for a negative or positive label.
OR
Get into pairs- Act out one negative and one positive experience. Step 1- The teacher labels a pupil (intelligent) and on the basis of this label makes predictions out them (you will get high marks).

Step 2- The teacher treats the pupil accordingly, acting as if the prediction is already true (e.g give them more attention).

Step 3- The pupil internalises the teachers expectation, which becomes part of his self image, so that he actually becomes the kind of pupil the teacher believed him to be in the first place (gains confidence, tries harder and is successful). Looking glass self Task- Discuss (2 mins)
What is it?
What can the effects be? Study- Rosenthal and Jacobson (1968) A group of pupils who share similar values and behavior patterns. They emerge as a response to labelling, streaming and the self fulfilling prophecy. Task- Look at each picture and discuss the following questions.
What will there attitude of school be?
What set would they be in?
How would they behave in school?
How would they gain a good status among the peers? How?- Colin Lacey (1970) Lacey studies Hightown boys grammar school study and found that streaming polarised boys into a Pro-school and Anti-school subculture. Differentiation Polarisation Do all pupils who are part of these subcultures fail?
What about people who are part of positive subculture who still fail?

Are subcultures a result of teachers individual prejudices? OR as Marxsts would argue, is there a deeper system of class division in society? Evaluation Task- Watch the video and answer the following questions on your own.

1. Outline some home and school explanations about why she might underachieve at school.

2. If you complete this then add some criticism to the explanations. Summary
of what you have learnt so far Reference-
UCAS, 2008. Annual datasets-Ethnicity / Social Class. [online] Available at: http://www.ucas.com/about_us/stat_services/stats_online/annual_datasets_to_download/ [accessed 19/11/2012] Parental and family circumstances impact upon GCSE attainment. In 2002, 77 per cent of children in year 11 in England and Wales with parents in higher professional occupations gained five or more A* to C grade GCSEs. This was more than double the proportion for children with parents in routine occupations (32 per cent).

The gap in GCSE attainment levels by parental socio-economic group increased in the 1990s. In 1992, 60 per cent of children with parents in managerial or professional occupations attained five or more GCSEs grade A* to C. This was 44 percentage points more than the proportion for children with parents in unskilled manual occupations. In 1998 this gap rose to 49 percentage points. By 2002 the gap between children with parents in higher professional occupations (broadly equivalent to managerial/professional occupations) and those with parents in routine occupations (broadly equivalent to unskilled manual occupations) had fallen back to 45 percentage points.

Like attainment at school, participation in further or higher education is strongly influenced by people's social and economic background. In 2002, 87 per cent of 16 year olds with parents in higher professional occupations were in full-time education. This compares with 60 per cent of those with parents in routine occupations, and 58 per cent with parents in lower supervisory occupations. However, once people's prior attainment is taken into account the impact of social background decreases significantly. Task-
Read the example paragraph. Look how they describe the graphs.
How many graphs do you think were used?
List 3 types of numbers that are used e.g 5 A-C GCSE Outline and evaluate competing explanations as to why certain ethnic groups underachieve Introduction- 200
In school- 800
Teacher/pupil relationships- 200
Pupil subcultures- 200
The hidden curriculum- 200
The organisation of teaching and learning- 200

Outside school- 800
Poverty- 200
Parental interest- 200
Language skills- 200
Cultural capital- 200
Positional theory- 200
Conclusion- 200 Competing school explanations The ethnocentric curriculum

Labelling and teacher racism

Pupil responses and subcultures

Institutional racism Summary and example paragraph for the report

There are inequalities in the educational achievement of different ethnic groups.
E.G Whites, and Asians significantly do better than blacks. However, the graph shows there are significant variations among Asians. E.g Indians do better than Pakistanis and Bangladeshis.

Certain ethnic groups are more likely to be permanently excluded from school.
In 2004/05 rates ranged from 2 in every 10,000 Chinese pupils being permanently excluded from schools in England, to 41 in every 10,000 pupils of mixed White and Black Caribbean origin. Around 80 per cent of all permanent exclusions in 2004/05 were of White pupils.

White working class boys make less progress than any other ethnic group.
Last year 55 per cent of white children achieved five GCSEs at grade A-C.
* In many local authorities white children on free school meals make less progress than any other group Ethnicity in education- current trends Ethnicity and different ethnic groups Task- Discuss the following questions on your tables (2 mins)

1. What ethnic group do you see yourself as belonging to?

2. Do you feel you belong to more than one group (e.g. English, British, European)? What problems would this pose for recording people’s educational achievements in terms of their ethnicity. Lawson and Garrod (2000) define ethnic groups as people who share common history, customs and identity, as well, in most cases language and religion, and who see themselves as a distinct unit. (Culture- those things that are learned, shared and valued by a social group) Ethnicity- definition Ethnicity and achievement Source- Social trends 2004 Task- (5 minutes) Construct a league table based on which ethnic group achieves 5 or more A*-C at GCSE/GNVQ by sex and ethnic group. Place the highest achievers at the top. Permanent exclusion rates: by ethnic group, 2004/05 Per 10,000 students Source- Department for education and skills Task- Write as precisely as you can what the graph shows about ethnic groups and the rate of exclusion Task- Have a go at analysing the graph on your own at home. Email me if you have any problems with the report. Home factors Positional theory
Poverty Cultural deprivation Material deprivation Parental interest
Language skills
Cultural capital Labelling and teacher racism To label someone is to attach a definition or meaning to them.

Do you think some teachers attach labels to these pupils? David Gillborn (1990) Ceclie Wright (1992) Pupils responses and subcultures Pupils can respond to labelling in a variety of ways

1. They may respond to their label whether good or bad which leads to the self fulfilling prophecy.

2. Alternatively they may refuse to accept that label and even try to prove it wrong by working extra hard.

Negative labels do not automatically turn into self fulfilling prophecies. Her study highlights two criticism of labelling and pupil subcultures.

Still succeed when they refuse to conform.
Negative labelling does not always lead to failure Fuller (1984) Definition- ethnocentric curriculum A curriculum (content of a course) that gives priority to the culture and viewpoint of one particular ethnic group while disregarding others (Webb et al, 2004) Task- Disscuss (2 mins)
1. How ethnocentric was the curriculum you followed in school?

2. How much non-European history, geography, literature, music etc did you study?

3. Did you study any non-European languages or non-christian religions? Task- look at the key stage 2 national curriculum for history. Write down the answers to the following questions:

1. Do you think it ignores cultural and ethnic diversity? (Ball, 1994) List a minimum of two reasons.

2. How can an ethnocentric curriculum lead to low self esteem and failure for some ethnic groups? (Coard, 1971) Not the individual teacher but how discrimination is built into the way it operates (are not always aware of it) (Troyna and Williams).

Can you think of any examples (e.g not having a prospectus in other languages) Institutional racism Two alternatives Multicultural education: a policy that recognises and values minority cultures and includes them in the curriculum.

Anti racist education: a policy that challenges the prejudice and discrimination that exists in schools and wider society. 1.Which ethnic group performs the worse in education according to this video?
1a. How can this act as a criticism for the statistical tables that you have just analysed?

2. According to the video how does the ethnocentric curriculum exclude the worse performing ethnic group?

3. Any other comments for discussion. Which ethnic group achieve the most A*- C at GCSE/GNVQ? Source- social trends 2004 What is an ethnocentric curriculum? Criticism- Statistics and the 'ethnocentric curriculum'. Rosenthal and Jacobson (1968)- Pygmalion in the classroom. The title is taken from George Berard Shaw's play Pygmalion. This was later made into the film My Fair Lady.

Task- Read the plot of the film and discuss on your tables this question. (2 mins)
Why has Rosenthal and Jacobson used the name of the play in their study? Task- On your tables discuss these questions ready to feedback to the class. Assessment Criteria
1.1Explain in detail the differing educational achievement of social groups including:
a)class b)gender c)ethnicity.

Grading criteria
1-Demonstrates a grasp of knowledge base. (very good/excellent)(generally/consistently)
4- Shows a grasp of meaning and significance of new information. (a range/an extensive range) (generally/consistent) (very good/excellent) The written report Task- 2 mins- Make a list of features that make these ethnic groups different from other ethnic groups? E.g Religion Measuring ethnic achievements in education Task- Using the pictures to discuss on your tables what an ethnocentric curriculum might be.
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