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Chemistry Research Project: Hard Water

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Manpreet Virk

on 8 March 2013

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Transcript of Chemistry Research Project: Hard Water

Chemistry Research Project: Hard Water What is hard water? Hard water is water which has a high content of dissolved minerals. Since water is a good solvent, it picks up impurities really easily. As it moves through rocks and soil, it dissolves a tiny quantity of the minerals. Majority of hard water is made up of magnesium and calcium. Is hard water bad for ecosystems? From my perspective and knowledge after the research for this project, I strongly believe that yes hard water is bad for ecosystems. It is created through a natural process which has no interference of impacting our ecosystem in a bad way. It is a natural product. But the way it can affect our ecosystem is changing it, and making it soft water. Many people don't prefer the usage of hard water because of its numerous cons. So they decide to change it to soft water, a more usable and a non -interfering water type. But the process which turns it into soft water, utilizes many chemicals. Which is bad for the environment. In addition, when changing hard water to soft, there is usually waste left behind from the water softener. This waste also is bad for ecosystems. Some people may prefer hard water and continue to remain using it. But the hard water will eventually begin to clog pipes and other plumbing fixtures which will soon require replacement. This will lead them to replacing the pipe, which is using more plastic and other products. And this is bad for the ecosystems. Are human activities a significant cause of hard water? Human activities are not a significant cause of hard water. The reason for my opinion is because of how hard water is made and processed. It is all natures process which human don't do anything to create it. Hard water is made underground. As it moves through rocks and soil it is picking up impurities.The most common source which water picks up these minerals is from limestone and gypsum in bedrock in the source area of the aquifer, because these minerals are easily dissolved compared to other minerals. Why is it important to soften hard water? I believe it is important to soften hard water because of all the cons it comes with. Although it is not a health hazard, it impacts our daily life and household appliances. It affects daily life because it makes washed clothing feel scratchy, worn out, and it develops an odor. This is not a good thing because the lifespan of the item will be shortened and you won't get your worth out of your purchase. Secondly it affects dish washing. Hard water will make washed dishes,cups, and silverware to have spots on them. Furthermore, when bathing in hard water, it will leave residue from the hard water. This will prevent the soap from removal of bacteria and result in irritation which is unpleasant. Also hard water doesn't lather, so when washing hair with hard water it makes it feel dull and difficult to manage. In addition when brewing coffee or making tea with hard water, it will develop a bitter taste. These are some of the common negatives which hard water has and the reasons why it is important to change it into soft water.






Selecting a water softener for your home can be a difficult process. Since hard water is so common and people need water softeners, there are numerous quantities to choose from. The first step is to find out the amount of hardness your water contains. This can be shown in either in milligrams per lite or as grains per gallon. You should also ask people you know and who have treated their water before. They will guide you in the right direction. Before actually purchasing a water softener, you should check its reviews. Either if it is good or not. Finally, check if your machine is electric or non-electric. Some other ways of water softening are Ion exchange water softener, shower head water filters, Reverse Osmosis (RO), water filter pitchers, water softening by magnetic, chemical method and salt. How do you choose the best water softener for your house? Hard water is bad for your home in many ways. Some of them are that hard water ruins the efficiency of cleaning products. It creates spots on dishes, silver ware, and glass. It ruins the quality of clothing, reduces the lifespan of them,ruins the fibers, makes them develop a sour odor and makes them feel scratchy. Washing windows with hard water will leave a residue on them. Bathing with hard water will prevent the removal of bacteria. It will also leave a film on your skin. You will use more soap, which will result in build up of scums. Which will lead to irritation. Washing hair using hard water will make it feel dull and difficult to manage. Coffee brewed using hard water will develop a bitter taste. Hard water will soon cause clogging in pipes because of the scale it builds up over time.There also can be scale development around faucets, which will lead to replacements. So therefore it is bad for your house and you. Is hard water bad for your house? Type
of
powder Physical
State Color Clarity Luster Structure Calcium
Carbonate Sugar Sodium
Bicarbonate Borax Sodium
Chloride Indian
FLour Solid Solid Solid Solid Solid Solid Brown/beige Off white White White Ivory White Shiny Shiny Dull Dull Dull Dull Spheres Spheres Opaque Opaque Opaque Opaque Transparent Translucent Irregular
Shapes Spheres/Fluffy Irregular
Shapes Powdery No No No No No No Odor

1. Based on the observed physical properties, your chemical is most like what other substance?

After observing physical properties of different and various substances my chosen chemical; hard water, is most similar to flour. The reason for my opinion is because of the similarities of both of their appearances. They both have a brownish color which I think makes them alike one another. They both have an odor, which is another similarity. None of the other substances have an odor or a similar color compared to hardwater. Physical Properties Observation Day1: Analysis Questions Physical Properties Observation Day 1 Powders Solubility Conductivity Other
Observations Calcium
Carbonate Sugar Carbon
Bicarbonate Borax Sodium
Chloride Indian
Flour Soluble Soluble Soluble Non-soluble Non-soluble Kind of
soluble Non-
Conductible Non-
conductible Conductible Conductible Conductible Conductible Opaque -transparent
-only some
particles dissolved -transparent
-dissolved -opaque
-clumpy -dissolved
-translucent -particles sink to
Bottom
-translucent Physical Properties Observation Day 2 3. How is solubility related to the conductivity of the substance you tested?

Based on the experiments results which we conducted, if a substance is soluble, it is therefore conductive. You have to acknowledge the amount of solubility in order to determine if the substance conductive. That is how conductivity is related to solubility. Solubility occurs when a substance is mixed thoroughly into another substance so it transforms into a compound. In addition the pairing of elements in a solution creates conductivity. Physical Properties Observation Day 2:
Analysis Questions Sodium
bicarbonate Borax Sugar Flour Sodium
Chloride Calcium
Carbonate Powders Water Vinegar Universal
Indicator Iodine White
0 White
0 White
0 White
0 White
0 White
0 Light purple
13
Bubbled up

White
0


Dark purple
14
Bubbled up


Orange
5

White
0
Bubbled up

White
0
Bubbled up Light green
9


Red
2

Red
PH 1

Green
10


Green
10

Green
10 Dark orange/
brown
12

Dark orange/
brown
12

Dark purple




Dark orange/
brown


Yellow
7


Orange
6
1. Calcium Carbonate – This substance began off as the color white, and a dry solid. But when water was added, no major transformation occurred than it turning into a liquid. When vinegar was added to this substance, a chemical reaction occurred. Some attributes to describe the result of this reaction is that the calcium chloride’s color turned to light purple and it started to fizz. Adding vinegar to this property also made it have an odor. When we added the universal indicator to the calcium chloride, the color changed from white to green. That was the only change. In addition, when the iodine and calcium carbonate were mixed and combined, the only factor which i observed changing about the substance was that it went from white to a dark- orange color. Physical Properties Observations Day 3: Analysis Questions Sodium Chloride – When water and sodium chloride were combined, no chemical reaction occurred other than it changing into a solid to liquid. Adding vinegar to this substance made it have a smell and a yellow color. When the universal indicator was mixed with the sodium chloride, it just transformed its color to white to a dull red. Iodine and sodium chloride combined together transformed the white powder turn into a dark orange- yellow color.

Flour – Water and flour mixed, made no chemical reaction, the flour only turned into a liquid. Adding vinegar to the flour changed it into a dark purple color, made it have a odor and it also made it fizz up. Flour and the universal indicator only turned the substance into a bright red color. When the iodine was added to the flour, it changed from a white color to a dark purple. Continuing Sugar – sugar and water mixed together didn't make any chemical reaction, the water made it turn into a liquid. Sugar and vinegar combined together resulted in the substance to fizz up and develop a smell. It changed into an orange color. The universal indicator with the sugar, turned the sugar dark green. Finally, the iodine only changed the sugar white to an orange yellow color.

Borax – Borax and water made no chemical reaction. It turned into a liquid from a solid. Vinegar made the borax fizz up and made it have an odor . But it remained white. The universal indicator with the borax, made the substance turn a dark green color. But when iodine and borax were mixed together, the white substance turned yellow.

Sodium Bicarbonate –When water and sodium bicarbonate were mixed, it made the substance into a liquid consistency. Vinegar and sodium bicarbonate combined together resulted in the color to stay white but it became fizzy and had an odor. Sodium bicarbonate and the universal indicator changed the substance to a dark green color. When iodine was added to sodium bicarbonate, it changed the color, to a white color to a light orange. Continuing 2. The unique reactions which occurred was, the powders that were mixed with vinegar. When vinegar was mixed with all of the powders (calcium carbonate, sodium chloride, flour, sugar, borax and sodium bicarbonate), they all became bubbly and turned fizzy. This chemical reaction did not occur with any other liquid mixed with the powders, but only vinegar. Another factor which I observed was the vinegar made the substances develop an odor. But when the other liquids were combined with the powders they did not. Only vinegar created this impact. In addition vinegar also changed the powders colors. 3. If I were to tell the individual powders apart from the other five I would use my five senses. I would use my hands to tell apart the textures. Since all of them have a slightly different texture than each other. For example sugar is coarser compared to sodium chloride. But feeling both of them I would be able to tell the difference. Another sense which I could utilize is taste. The substances which are eatable, I would eat and taste to tell them apart. Since all the powders don’t have the same taste. For example, flour does not have the same taste as sugar. By tasting the two I will be able to tell them apart. In addition I would use sight to tell them apart as well. I would use sight to tell them apart by color, shape, and appearance. This is how I would do to tell each powder apart from each other. Day 3 Continued Physical Properties Observation Day3 Continuing Oxygen
1.Oxygen
2.Colorless, odorless, gas state and tasteless (in normal temperature and pressure)
3.Compressed Gas
4.

5.(NOT LISTED AS A HAZARDOUS)
Breathing pure oxygen under pressure can cause:
Unconsciousness
Lung damage
Visual and hearing problems
Poor coordination
Breathing 80% or more oxygen in atmospheric pressure can cause chest pain and breathing difficulty. First Aid:
Inhalation: If harmful in any way, go to an uncontaminated are. Get medical attention.
Skin Contact: Clean skin with lukewarm water if frostbite or freezing occurs. Don’t use hot water. Wrap blankets around affected area if warm water isn’t available. Get medical attention.
Eye Contact: Wash out eyes with water for a minimum of 15 minutes.
Ingestion: Get medical attention if too much is ingested.
6.Stay ventilated;
If in liquid state; wear goggles and insulated, appropriate clothing.
Use respiratory protection if exposed to too much. MSDS 1. Calcium
2. Odorless
3. Flammable and Combustible, and Corrosive Material
4.

5 Eyes: Swelling and inflammation of the eyes
Skin: Dryness, irritation and burning.
Ingestion: Nausea and headaches.
Inhalation: Burns to mucous membrane, rapid, irregular breathing and may cause metal fume fever.

First Aid:
Always seek professional attention after first aid measures are provided
Eyes: Clean eyes instantaneously with water for at least 15 minutes.
Skin: Take off any contaminated clothing and wash skin for at least 15 minutes.
Inhalation: Access a place with fresh air.

6.Keep ventilated, wear goggles and chemical protected clothing. Keep eyewash, safety shower and fire extinguishers accessible. Wash hands properly after touching chemical. Don’t breathe in; avoid contact with skin, eyes and clothing. Store in cool, dry, ventilated area with other flammable materials but away from strong oxidizer and away from incompatible materials. Calcium Carbonate:
1.Calcium Carbonate
2.Odourless
3.Corrosive Material
4.


5.(Not Considered Hazourdous)
Redness and itching of eyes and skin
Burning of eyes, mouth and throat
Vomiting
Abdominal pain
Irritation of mucous membranes
Shortness of breath
Coughing
First Aid:
Always seek professional attention after first aid measures are provided
Eyes: Clean eyes instantaneously with water for at least 15 minutes.
Skin: Take off any contaminated clothing and wash skin for at least 15 minutes.
Ingestion: Call Poison Control immediately. Rinse mouth with cold water. Drink 1-2 cups of milk or water. Vomit immediately.
Inhalation: Go to area with fresh air. 6.Keep ventilated, wear goggles and chemical protected clothing. Keep eyewash, safety shower and fire extinguishers accessible. Wash hands properly after touching chemical. Don’t breathe in; avoid contact with skin, eyes and clothing. Store in cool, dry, ventilated area, only store with other items that don’t have storage hazards. Lead:
1.Lead
2.Odourless, granular, sheet, foil.
3.Toxic Immediate and Severe
4.

5.Moderately toxic by ingestion, absorbed through skin, possible carcinogen.
Toxic organs: Nervous system, blood, and kidneys.

(Considered Hazardous)
Redness and itching of eyes and skin
Burning of eyes, mouth and throat
Vomiting
Shortness of breath
Possible effect of IQ of children
Impair Immune System
Increase of systolic blood pressure First Aid:
Always seek professional attention after first aid measures are provided
Eyes: Clean eyes instantaneously with water for at least 15 minutes.
Skin: Take off any contaminated clothing and wash skin for at least 15 minutes.
Ingestion: Call Poison Control immediately. Rinse mouth with cold water. Drink 1-2 cups of milk or water. Vomit immediately.
Inhalation: Go to area with fresh air.


6.Keep ventilated, wear goggles and chemical protected clothing. Keep eyewash, safety shower and fire extinguishers accessible. Wash hands properly after touching chemical. Don’t breathe in, avoid contact with skin, eyes and clothing. Store in cool, dry, ventilated area, only store with other items that don’t have storage hazards The End
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