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Transcript of Cyber-ethnography
What is netnography?
Principles of virtual ethnography
"Perhaps you will be conducting your own netnography. Perhaps you will be reading and enjoying ethnographies, or reviewing and evaluating them, or struggling to understand or work with them.
Virtual Ethnography in Context:
The Chilean Diaspora on the Internet
Is cyber-ethnography true ethnography?
Cleaver, H. (1998). The Zapatista effect: The internet and the rise of an alternative political fabric. Journal of International Affairs, 51(2), 621-640.
Gibb, C. (2006). Deterritorialized people in hyberspace: Creating and debating Harari identity over the Internet. In K. Landzelius (Ed.), Native on the net: Indigenous and diasporic peoples in the virtual age. Oxon, UK: Routledge.
Gideon, V. (2006). Canadian aboriginal peoples tackle e-health: Seeking ownership versus integration. In K. Landzelius (Ed.), Native on the net: Indigenous and diasporic peoples in the virtual age. Oxon, UK: Routledge.
Guimarães, M. (2005). Doing anthropology in cyberspace: Fieldwork boundaries and social environments. In C. Hine (Ed.), Virtual methods: Issues in social research on the Internet. Oxford: Berg.
Hardey, M. (2002). "The story of my illness": Personal accounts of illness on the Internet. Illness and Medicine, 6(1), 1545-1553.
Hine, C. (2003). Virtual ethnography. London, UK: Sage.
Hine, C. (Ed.). (2005). Virtual methods: Issues in social research on the Internet. Oxford, UK: Berg.
Ignacio, E. N. (2005). Building diaspora: Filipino cultural community formation on the internet. Piscataway, NJ: Rutgers.
Joinson, A. N. (2005). Internet behaviour and virtual methods. In C. Hine (Ed.), Virtual methods: Issues in social research on the Internet. Oxford: Berg.
Kivits, J. (2005). Online interviewing and the research relationship. In C. Hine (Ed.), Virtual methods: Issues in social research on the Internet. Oxford, UK: Berg.
Kozinets, R. (2012). Netnography: Doing ethnographic research online. London: SAGE.
Landzelius, K. (2006). The meta-native and the militant activist: Virtually saving the rainforest. In K. Landzelius (Ed.), Native on the net: Indigenous and diasporic peoples in teh virtual age. Oxon, UK: Routledge.
Lee, H. (2006). Debating language and identity online: Tongans on the net. In K. Landzelius (Ed.), Native on the net: Indigenous and diasporic peoples in the virtual age. Oxon, UK: Routledge.
Leung, L. (2005). Virtual ethnicity: Race, resistance and the World Wide Web. Aldershot, England: Ashgate.
López-Rocha, S. (2009). Identity, adaptation, and community making among the Chilean diaspora in England. Unpublished Doctoral thesis, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK.
Mann, C., & Stewart, F. (2006). Internet communication and qualitative research: A handbook for researching online. London: Sage.Schaefer, J. P. (2006). Discussion lists and public policy on iGhana: Chimps and feral activists. In K. Landzelius (Ed.), Native on the net: Indigenous and diasporic peoples in the virtual age. Oxon, UK: Routledge.
Smith, M., & Kollock, P. (Eds.). (2001). Communities in cyberspace. London, UK: Routledge.
Sterne, J. (1999). Thinking the Internet: Cultural studies versus the millennium. In S. Jones (Ed.), Doing Internet research. London: Sage.
Weisband, S., & Kiesler, S. (1986). Self-disclosure on computer forms: Meta-analysis and implications. Retrieved August, 2009: http://www.acm.org/sigchi/chi96/proceedings/papers/Weisband/sw_txt.htm
Wellman, B., & Gulia, M. (2001). Virtual communities as communities: Net surfers don't ride alone. In M. Smith & P. Kollock (Eds.), Communities in cyberspace. New York: Routledge.
Theoretical views and implications
A netnography of an online community
Is this true ethnography?
a participative approach to the study of online culture and communities; it is an adaptation of participant-observational ethnographic procedures (Kozinets, 2006, p. 135).
What can we study?
1. The cyberspace has rich and complex connections with the contexts in which it is used.
2. The ethnography of mediated interaction is mobile rather than single or multi-sited.
3. Focus on flow and connectivity rather than location and boundary as the organizing principle.
4. Boundaries are not to be assumed; connections exist between the ‘virtual’ and the ‘real’.
5. Relationships cross the temporal and spatial divides.
6. The validity of interactions is not compromised.
7. Nethnography involves intensive engagement with mediated interactions, and a ‘reflective dimension’.
8. Virtual ethnography is adaptive.
Dr Sandra López-Rocha
1. Effective qualitative research relations can be forged online
2. Synchronous and asynchronous availability of communication
3. Higher probability to disclose sensitive information
4. Online/offline research can be combined
5. Greater opportunities for interactions
6. Data can be easily recorded
7. The researcher may be visible or invisible
1. Online communication may require the researcher to develop new sociability skills
2. Self-presentation is extremely important for gaining trust
4. Negotiating access may be an issue
5. Identity play
5. The communication flow may be interrupted and hard to re-establish
"On the Internet, nobody knows you're a dog."
A reality of our times
The ethnographic experience provides a site for reflection
Profound effects on individuals and communities
Validity of the relations forged in the cyberspace
Possibility to use or occupy a virtual space
Rich ethnographies with more layers of interconnectivity
Effectiveness and reliability
Different perception of the field
Basis of trust, negotiation of consent, and privacy
"As fundamental to the identities of some people as the existing ethnic communities whose existence we have taken for granted for decades or even centuries” (Elkins, 1997, p. 141).
“Online interactions are sufficiently real for participants to feel they have been harmed or their privacy infringed by researchers” (Hine, 2003, p. 23).
Whatever your connection, I hope you find joy and inspiration from this new, thrilling area of human interconnection. For, just as important as our scientific rigor, perhaps, is our playfulness.
Netnography – like ethnography – should be, much of the time, a joyous, boundless pursuit of discovery, new relations, and new relationships.
See you online!” (Kozinets, 2012, p. 183).
Zapatista rebellion supporters and the use of the internet
Racial identity in Usenet discussions
Negotiating nationhood on the net among Turcomans and Assyrians of Iraq
Creating and debating Harari identity over the Internet
Canadian aboriginal peoples tackling e-health
Internet protests, from text to web
Filipino community formation on the Internet
Netnography and tribal advertising
Debating language and identity among Tongans
Chilean Diaspora in England: Identity, community and boundary formation