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Copy of ITGS Chapter 3

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Mohamed Nazar

on 27 September 2013

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Transcript of Copy of ITGS Chapter 3

Video Editing Software
-Images,sound and video
Types of Application Software
Seeking Software in Neverland
Class Prezi :)
Free and Open Source Software
Utility Software
- "housekeeping" tasks
-What it can do:
Case Study: Therac-25
Accident 1:
Open Source Versus Closed Source
- how the computer infrastructure (computer hardware, operating system and data storage) operates
Accident 2:
Cloud Computing
-features: text creation, formatting, spelling check, language tools
-mail merge
-letters, memos, business proposals and other typed documents
Sets of instructions which hardware follows in order to perform tasks
Operating Systems (OS) software
-System software
Operating System (OS) software or system software
Managing and controlling all of the computer's hardware
Username and password
Allows the user to interact with and operate the computer
Command Line Interface (CLI)
Task and Memory Management
Providing a User Interface
Graphical User Interface (GUI)
Communicating with Hardware
Controls all hardware devices such as disk drives, printers, and screens
Accident 3:
Word Processing
-creating brochures, leaflets,posers, newletters, magazines
-difference: more control over the layout of the page
-less text creation tools so text is often created in a word processor then imported to desktp publishing
- remote Internet server

- cloud computing services
Disk Defragmentation
- availability
- easily upgraded
- reliable
- collaborative work
Presentation Software
Accident 4:
-Gives users freedom to use software however they like
-Can alter software, add features, fix bugs
-When changes are made, stays public (however can be sold if rules are followed and source code remains free)
-Extras can be included like user support and documentation if it is sold
-creation of slides
-used for verbal presentations by businesspeople, conferences, teachers
-text bullet points and images
formatted to size of computer screen
-overhead projector often used
- increases access speed by rearranging files to occupy contiguous storage locations
- bandwidth
- reliance on provider
- legality of data
Manage and control all of the computer's hardware
Audio software
-Record, edit,
and mix digital audio
Web Development
The real accident....
Accident 5:

User interface
User Interfaces
Application Software
Multimedia software
-interactive graphical
Software compatibility
Software Reliability
Desktop Publishing
- reduces system startup times
Examples of Free and Open Source
-Linux operating system
-LibreOffice office suite
-Firefox web browser
-MySQL database programs
-meant for calculations
-worksheet is divided into a grid
-cells are labelled with a number and letter for reference
-support automatic calculation
Cross-platform or Multi-platform
-Free and open source software is not Feeware. It is free as in freedom!
-Just because someone can badly alter the FOSS does not mean it can be uploaded to your computer!
- uses visual symbols to represent computer
- controlled by hardware
- easy for non-skilled computer users
File Compatibility
User Interfaces
Command Line Interface (CLI)
Task and Memory Management
Security Management
Command Line Interface (CLI)
Graphical User Interface (GUI)
Providing a User Interface
Communicating with Hardware
Backup Programs
All IT systems are combination of hardware, software, people, and data. Problems with any of these parts causes system to fail
-Bugs: errors & mistakes made by the programmers as they create programs
-Blackouts: failures that caused serious impacts
-Safety Critical Systems: systems where failure could cause injury or death
- The force
Firewall Software-restrict incoming and outgoing traffic and prevented unauthorised access
-create, store, structure, and sort data
-simple (DVD collection) -> complex (databases)
-Relational Database Management Systems (RDBMS) : used by major groups to manage data for large amount of data
Common Operating Systems
- no Recycling Bin or files in use
Microsoft Windows
Symbian OS
MacOS 10
- user controls by typing commands
- modern computers have command prompt
- fast and easy for tasks involving multiple files
- wildcards
- local not network
- less than 4 KB
- no encrypted files
-increased usage of email, social networking, and cloud computing
-built-in tools for security, privacy, extensions to add features to browsers
- minimizes head travel (read/write files)
- exact copies
Year 2000 problem or 'Millennium bug'
Selecting and Installing an Operating System
- restore in case of data loss
Account software
-Manage finances
-Specialized software
-This is really the question of whether or not one should make money on this programming.
1. Check hardware compatibility
- voluming: compress and split
2. Check software compability
3. Check hardware requirements
4. Obtain the operating system media and any licenses required
-code editor to create HTML, CSS, and JavaScript coding
-graphical editor: able to create pages without knowing HTML
-check compatibility of other browsers and web standards
5. Back up any existing data you wish to keep and test the backup to ensure it works
- remote backup (banks, stock exchanges)
6. Partition and format the hard disk
7. Run the installation program and configure the operating system
- full vs. differential and incremental
Computer software created before 1990s stored dates using 2 digits
This was to save money because memory storage was expensive
THE PROBLEM: when it became 2000, the computer couldn't recognize the "00". Calculations would be invalid (00-80=20 vs. (99-80=19)
8. Activate or register the operating system
Source Code
-Instructions that make up the programs
-Written in programming language like C, Java, or Basic
-Source code converted to binary code by translator program
-Only source code to executable not the other way around
- schedules
- encryption
Denver Airport Baggage System
System designed to automatically transfer passengers' bags from check-in desk to aircraft.
But there were delays.
--> Hard for computers to work in real world
-bags falling out of carts, getting stuck on carts or in conveyor belts, labels getting dirty, preventing the computer from reading them
Cost so much $$$ to fix and maintain
Free as in Freedom
- removable media
-FOSS programmers keep the code open to everybody to help promote innovation.
-FOSS requires that changes be published so that everyone can benefit from the improvements.
-Commercial software companies keep their code secret to make money off it.
-They can sell initial copies and updates
Note taking software
-Lectures, classes, or conferences
-Word Processor
-create and edit digital images
-creation of images: individual pixels, shapes
-additional features include blurs, cropping, rotating, watercolor, pencil, etc.
-Vector: uses mathematical shapes to create images
-3D rendering: 3D objects are created and can be given features, such as color, texture
Computer Aided Design: product designs, prototypes created
9. Update the operating system
10. Install any required application software
11. Restore any data
User Interface
National Cancer Institute Panama City
28 patients received overdoses and 18 later died after a computerized treatment system miscalculated radiation doses.
Menu-Driven Interface
- encoding messages
Mars Climate Orbiter
- files "at rest" or in transit
An Orbiter was designed to land on Mars and study the Martian surface but it was destroyed when attempted to land because it entered the atmosphere at a higher speed than intended
This is because some software developers used metric system while others did Imperial units.
Simple miscalculation over units caused the incorrect speed which led to loss of 327 MILLION $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$
Web Browser
Open Source More Secure?
- select from predetermined options
- ATMs
- automatic cash registers
Open Source
Closed Source
Could be maliciously edited
Could be fixed by many
People can see the changes and dangers
Cannot be changed by other users
Security bugs only known by developers
System Monitoring
-Can verify how FOSS works
-Example: Voting Software
-Not possible with commercial software
Therac-25= computer controlled machine for administering radiation treatment to cancer patients, manufactered by AECL.
PROBLEM: designer removed hardware safety locks which physically prevented certain erroneous conditions
Getting Help
Disk Fragmentation
- printed user manual
- Read me files
- website documentation, FAQs, and tutorials
- Wizards/Assistants
- third party documentation
Commercial Licences
-Need a license to deal with copyright laws.
-Licenses usually forbid modification
-Must comply with End Use License Agreement (EULA)
-Single User License: only one user can use the software but can be installed on different computers
-Multi-use license or concurrent license: certain number of users can install and use software check number by "phone home"
-Site License: Unlimited people can use software as long as part of same organization.
- CPU usage, frequency and temperature
- free RAM and space
Large overdose given to a breast cancer patient. Hosiptal denied the mistake. She ended up losing her arm and had two breasts removed.
- IP address current rates of download/upload
- uptime
- date and time
- fan speed
- voltage
Disk Cleanup
- free up disk space
- targets:
- compression of old files
- temporary internet files
- temporary windows files
- downloaded program files
- Recycle Bin
- unused applications
- set-up log files
- offline files
Accessibility Options
- disabled users
- visual impairments: high contrast, screen magnifying, auditory feedback, screen reader
- motor and dexterity impairment: keyboard shortcuts, switches, joysticks, trackballs
- hearing impairment: visual notifications, captioned text
Anti-Virus Software
- prevent, detect, remove malware
Copy Protection Mechanisms
-Try to protect against piracy
-Embeds the authorised user into it
-Serial Numbers
-Product activation
-Digital Rights Management: Need disk to work
-Software organizations: Business Software Alliance and Federalization Against Software Theft lobby to government and set up rewards for those who report piracy
Paying for FOSS
-Can sell FOSS sometimes
-Can bring more customers by adding other installments
-Can also sell subscriptions
- signature-based detection
- heuristic analysis
- Rootkit detection
- real-time protection
Systems Updates
- latest security and performance patches
Compression Software
- save disk space or network bandwidth
- decompress
- cloud
- may contain errors and not all data is retrievable
restore backup regularly
by the Charismatic Cindy
Types of Software
-Intellectual property
-Copyright laws
-Different types= Diffferent restrictions
Commercial Software
-Licensed/sold for profit
-No copying
-Made by very large companies
The machine gave error message 5 times "No Dosage" when it fact each time patient did get the dose.
Same thing as Accident 1. The hospital said it was a problem with the machine.
The Therac-25 machine paused and technician restarted the machine. She gave patient two large overdoses and he died. The visual equipment was broken also.
Accounting Software
Note taking software
-Lectures, classes,
-no cost
-limited time
-No cost
Even more extreme...

-Relinquished all rights

-Sell it, change it, give it away

-Copyright expires or if creator specifically waived their rights under copyright law.
Public domain
A technician encountered a problem but before she could do anything about it it gave an overdose and her patient died. The technician realized that the problem happened because of a certain glitch. He figured out the glitch and told the company
Accident 6:
Same as accident 3 and there was an error message. This caused an overdose. But in this case someone died
By the time the Therac was removed from service, 3 people died, 3 people injured.
-Malfunction 54 gave an overdose to patient
-No dose caused false message because dose had been given
Manage programs
Assign resources
Protect or isolate programs
Device Drivers-software that communicates with the various hardware dives attached to the computer
Microsoft Windows
Suitable for personal desktop and lap systems
-Windows 7
-Windows Vista
MacOS 10
Runs on Apple hardware
Operating systems
"Unix-like" operating system
Distributions=different versions of Linux aimed at different markets
Popular operating system for mobile phones
-Managed by Nokia
Developed by Google
-Runs of handsets from a variety of manufacturers
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