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Captain James Cook

Nandini's European Project

nana6119 nana6119

on 15 June 2009

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Transcript of Captain James Cook

Captain James Cook was the greatest explorer of our planet. He was born on October 27 1728 in Marton in North Yorkshire, now part of Middlesbrough, England. In three voyages, he discovered more of this planet's surface than any other man in his time. He is one of most highly regarded navel commanders of all time, although unlike most other famous captains, his career is not associated with any well known navel battles. He died on Febuary 14 1779 (Valentine's Day) when he was killed by natives in Hawaii over an argue regarding a stolen boat. Captain James Cook Captain James Cook spent most of his childhood at Great Ayton, a town not far from his birth place, where his father moved to take a job as a farm foreman. At 8 years old, James went to the Postgate School in the village, as well as working on the farm. It is thought that he was an average student, though an expert in mathematics. He attended the school until he was 12, when he began full time work. (He didn't have much education and spent most of the time working.) At the age of 17, he found his first regular empolyment in a shop at the little fishing port of Staithes (Cleveland). It was there that Captain James Cook began his fascination with the sea.
Cook's parents were farmers. His dad's name was James Cook also, whilst his mom's name was Grace Pace. Including James, they had eight children, though four died in childhood. Cook himself married Elizabeth Batts, daughter of Samuel Batts and had six children.
On Captain James Cook's first voyage, he circumnavigated the whole of New Zealand. It extended from August 1768 to July 1771. It was the initial Pacific exploratory of James Cook, and was hired by the Royal Society, to observe the Transit of Venus, which is when the planet Venus passes directly between the Earth and the Sun. He sailed on the Endeavour from England in 1768, to arrive at Tahiti on April 13 1769, where the observations were made. However, the observations weren't as accurate as they hoped. Cook later mapped the complete coastline of New Zealand, with only minor mistakes. He then sailed west reaching the south-eastern coast of Australian continent on April 19 1770, and in doing so, his expedition became the first recorded Europeans to have encountered its eastern coastline. Cook's second voyage began on July 13, 1772 from Plymouth, England. He took two whitby colliers, the resolution and the adventure. The adventure had 80 crewman, and scientists, while the endeavour had 110 crewman, and scientists. His orders were to find the southern continent. Prior to Cook's day, an accurate measurement of longitude was virtually impossible.That meant that there was no way to determine the exact time of day, the ship's position, and the exact time at a fixed point on shore. After 1735, a device invented by the Englishman John Harrison made this possible. He invented a sea cloak called a chronometer, and because of this device, Cook was one of the first ship's commander to know his exact position on the globe. The ships headed south around the Cape of Good Hope and toward Antartica. They crossed the Arctic Circle for the first time in January 1773, and had also sailed farther south that any other sailor. Unfortunately, too much ice blocked Cook's way to find the continent of Antarctic and eventually his ships headed for warmer waters to the east. After stops in New Zealand and Tahiti, Cook discovered more islands in the south Pacific. He arrived back in England on July 29,1775. Introduction Childhood/Family/Education Voyage 1 (1768-71) Voyage 2 (1772-75) Voyage 3 (1776-79) Cook's final voyage began on July 12, 1776. The purpose of the third voyage was to find the fabled NorthWest Passage. Unlike other explorers who attempted to find this area of the world, Cook attempted a route from the Pacific side. On January 18, 1778, Cook sighted the Hawaiian Islands for the first time. The natives rowed out to meet his ships and were very friendly. The Hawaiians also thought that Cook was a god and that his men were supernatural beings. After two weeks of trading and good relations, the ships departed heading north. By August, Cook concluded there was no Northwest Passage and decided to head for warmer waters for the winter. By January 17, 1779, the two ships once again landed off the shores of the Hawaiian Islands. The Englishmen appeared to have worn out their welcome with the natives. Captain Cook started to get worried and decided to leave the islands on February 4. Unfortunately, a storm broke the foremast of the Resolution and Cook was forced to return to the Hawaiian Islands on February 11 to make repairs. The natives were not happy to see the visitors once again. One of the ship's boats was stolen, and Cook took a Hawaiian chief as hostage until the boat was returned. On February 14, Cook was heading back to his ship with his hostage when he and his men were surrounded by shouting, angry natives. While he was calling for help, one of the natives stabbed him in the back, and that was the end of Captain James Cook. Conclusion The contributions of James Cook were extraordinary. He was the first explorer to map the coastline of Australia. He charted much of the Pacific Ocean and discovered several island groups. He used a chronometer to chart his exact position on the globe. He was one of the first sea captains to discover the cure for scurvy. He sailed farther south than any other explorer before him, and he proved once and for all that there was no Northwest Passage.

Facts and other Information The first voyage is shown in red, the second voyage is in green, and the third in blue. Did you know that Cook's dietary and hygienic precautions kept the members of his expeditions in good health? Only one man died during his second voyage. Cook was hired in 1776 by the Royal Geographic Society who sponsered Cook's first expedition to observe the transit of venus in 1769. The journey was co-sponsered by the Admiralty. Cook's other voyages were also planned as scientific explorations and were sponsered by George III and the Admiralty. It was not so much that James Cook wanted to explore, he was chosen to explore. With his experience and skill, he was a very good candidate for all the missions he was asked to do. So explorations was just him following orders. A model of The Endeavor Cook's family Sources:Wikipedia, wikianswers
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