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AP US History: Semester 1 Mind Map
Transcript of AP US History: Semester 1 Mind Map
1. PART ONE: Founding the New Nation
c. 33,000 B.C.E-1783 C.E
2. PART TWO: Building the New Nation
3. Part THREE: Testing the New Nation
AP US History: Semester 1 Mind Map
CHAPTER 8 & CHAPTER 9
The Planter "Aristocracy"
The antebellum South was more of an oligarchy-a government ran by a few. The government was heavily affected by the planter aristocracy.
Geology of New World- N. America
By: Samantha Flores
Now that the New World exsists
People beginning to come to the Americas
were shaping sophisticated civilizations in Peru.
were shaping sophisticated civilizations in Mexico.
Europeans Enter Africa
But it was hard so they made and
Creating the plantation system
Causing the Colombian
The Spanish Conquistadores
They settled in:
Other Key Things to Remember:
The Conquest of Mexico
In about 1519, Hernan Cortes set sail from Cuba with men and horses. Along the way, he picked up two translators - A Spanish prisoner of Mayan-speaking Indians, and an Indian slave named Malinche.
The Spaniards arrived at Tenochtitlan, the Aztec capital with the intention of stealing all of the gold and other riches; they were amazed by the beauty of the capitol.
On June 30, 1520, the Aztecs attacked the Spanish because of the Spaniards' lust for riches. The Spanish countered, though, and took over the capital and the rest of the Aztec empire on August 13, 1521.
Due to the rule of the Spanish, the Indian population in Mexico went from 20 million to 2 million in less than a century.
The Spread of Spanish America
In 1565, the Spanish built a fortress at St. Augustine, Florida to protect the sea-lanes to the Caribbean.
In 1680, after the Spanish captured an area known today as New Mexico in 1609, the natives launched a rebellion known as Popes Rebellion. The natives burned down churches and killed priests. They rebuilt a kiva, or ceremonial religious chamber, on the ruins of the Spanish plaza at Santa Fe.
The misdeeds of the Spanish in the New World led to the birth of the "Black Legend." This false concept stated that the conquerors just tortured and killed the Indians, stole their gold, infected them with smallpox, and left little but misery behind.
33,000-8,000 B.C. - First humans cross into Americas from Asia.
5,000 B.C. - Corn is developed as a stable crop in highland Mexico.
4,000 B.C. - First civilized societies develop in the Middle East.
1,200 B.C. - Corn planting reaches present-day American Southwest.
1,000 A.D. - Norse voyagers discover and briefly settle in northeastern North America.
Corn cultivation reaches Midwest and southeastern Atlantic seaboard.
1,100 A.D. - Height of Mississippian settlement at Cahokia.
1,100-1,300 A.D. - Christian crusades arouse European interest in the East.
1295 - Marco Polo returns to Europe.
Late 1400s - Spain becomes united.
1488 - Diaz rounds southern tip of Africa.
1492 - Columbus lands in the Bahamas.
1494 - Treaty of Tordesillas between Spain and Portugal.
1498 - Da Gama reaches India. Cabot explores northeastern coast of North America for England.
1513 - Balboa claims all lands touched by the Pacific Ocean for Spain.
1513, 1521 - Ponce de Leon explores Florida.
1519-1521 - Cortes conquers Mexico for Spain.
1522 - Magellan's vessel completes circumnavigation of the world.
1524 - Verrazano explores eastern seaboard of North America for France.
1532 - Pizarro crushes Incas.
1534 - Cartier journeys up the St. Lawrence River.
1539-1542 - De Soto explores the Southeast and discovers the Mississippi River.
1540-1542 - Cabrillo explores present-day Southwest.
1542 - Cabrillo explores California coast for Spain.
1565 - Spanish build fortress at St. Augustine.
Late 1500s - Iroquois Confederacy founded, according to Iroquois legend.
1598-1609 - Spanish under Onate conquer pueblo peoples of Rio Grande valley.
1609 - Spanish found New Mexico.
1680s - French exploration down Mississippi River under La Salle.
1769 - Serra founds first California mission, at San Diego.
The Spanish were at Santa Fe in 1610.
The French were at Quebec in 1608.
The English were at Jamestown, Virginia in 1607.
England's Imperial Stirrings
King Henry VIII broke with the Roman Catholic Church in the 1530s, launching the
English Protestant Reformation
, and intensifying the rivalry with Catholic Spain.
Elizabeth Energizes England
In 1580, Francis Drake circumnavigated the globe, plundering and returning with his ship loaded with Spanish booty. He had a profit of about 4,600%.
When the English fleet defeated the
, Spain's empirical dreams and fighting spirit had been weakened - helping to ensure the English's naval dominance over the North Atlantic.
England on the Eve of an Empire
Because an economic depression hit England in the later part of the 1500s and many people were left without homes, the stage was set for the establishment of an English beachhead in North America.
In 1606, a joint-stock company, known as the
of London, received a charter from King James I of England for a settlement in the New World. The company landed in Jamestown on May 24, 1607.
Captain John Smith
took over the town and forced the settlers into line.
By 1609, of the 400 settlers who came to Virginia, only 60 survived the "starving winter" of 1609-1610.
England Plants the Jamestown Seedling
Lord De La Warr
reached Jamestown in 1610 with supplies and military. He started the
First Anglo-Powhatan War
The Indians were again defeated in the
Second Anglo-Powhatan War
By 1685, the English considered the Powhatan people to be extinct.
England Plants the Jamestown Seedling
Virginia: Child of Tobacco
John Rolfe married Pocahontas in 1614, ending the First Anglo-Powhatan War.
In 1619, self-government was made in Virginia. The London Company authorized the settlers to summon an assembly, known as the House of Burgesses.
King James I didn't trust the House of Burgesses and so in 1624, he made Virginia a colony of England, directly under his control.
Maryland: Catholic Haven
Maryland was formed in 1634 by
Maryland was made for a refuge for the Catholics to escape the wrath of the Protestant English government.
The Act of Toleration
, which was passed in 1649 by the local representative group in Maryland, granted toleration to all Christians.
The West Indies: Way Station to mainland America
By the mid-17th Century, England had secured its claim to several West Indian Islands.
Sugar was, by far, the major crop on the Indian Islands.
To support the massive sugar crops, millions of African slaves were imported. By 1700, the number of black slaves to white settlers in the English West Indies by nearly 4 to 1. In order to control the large number of slaves, the Barbados Slave Code of 1661 denied even the most fundamental rights to slaves
Colonizing the Carolinas
Civil war plagued England in the 1640s.
In 1707, the Savannah Indians decided to end their alliance with the Carolinians and migrate to the back country of Maryland and Pennsylvania, where a new colony founded by Quakers under William Penn promised better relations. Almost all of the Indians were killed in raids before they could depart - in 1710.
Rice became the primary export of the Carolinas.
Charles I dismissed Parliament in 1629 and sanctioned the anti-Puritan persecutions of the reactionary Archbishop William Laud.
During the Great Migration of the 1630s, about 70,000 refugees left England for America. Most of them were attracted to the warm and fertile West Indies, especially the sugar-rich island of Barbados.
John Winthrop- the Bay Colony's first governor - served for 19 years
In 1629, an energetic group of non-Separatist Puritans, fearing for their faith and for England's future, secured a royal charter to form the Massachusetts Bay Company. (Massachusetts Bay Colony)
The Bay Colony Bible Commonwealth
TROUBLE IN THE BIBLE COMMONWEALTH
Anne Hutchinson- an intelligent woman who challenged the Puritan orthodoxy; was banished from the Massachusetts Bay Colony because of her challenges to the Church.
Roger Williams- popular Salem minister who also challenged the Church; an extreme Separatist; was banished from the Massachusetts Bay Colony.
RHODE ISLAND "SEWER"
Roger Williams fled to the Rhode Island area in 1636. There, he established religious freedom for all kinds of people.
Other Key things:
Quaker Pennsylvania and Its Neighbors
The Quakers treated the Indians very well. Many immigrants came to Pennsylvania seeking religious freedom.
"Blue Laws" prevented "ungodly revelers" from staging plays, playing cards, dice, games, and excessive hilarity.
By 1700, Pennsylvania surpassed all but Massachusetts and Virginia as the most populous and wealthy colony.
William Penn was never fully liked by his colonists because of his friendly relations with James II. He was arrested for treason thrice and thrown into prison.
In 1664, New Netherland, a territory along the Hudson River, was taken by the English and granted to Lord John Berkeley and Sir George Carteret. This grant that was given to Carteret and Berkeley divided the region into East and West New Jersey, respectively.
Berkeley sold West New Jersey in 1674 to a William Penn and his group of Quakers, who set up a sanctuary before Pennsylvania was launched.
In 1681 (the same year that Penn was given the region of Pennsylvania from King Charles II), William Penn and his Quakers purchased East New Jersey from Carteret's widow.
In 1702, the proprieters of East and West New Jersey voluntarily surrendered their governmental powers over the region to the royal crown after confusion began to arise over the large number of landowners and growing resentment of authority. England combined the two territories (East and West New Jersey) into one colony in 1702.
Chapter 4 American Life
The Unhealthy Chesapeake
Half the people born in early Virginia and Maryland did not survive to celebrate their 20th birthday.
At the beginning of the 18th Century, Virginia was the most populous colony with 59,000 people. Maryland was the 3rd largest, after Massachusetts, with 30,000.
THE TOBACCO ECONOMY BOOMS
By the 1630s, 1.5 million pounds of tobacco were being shipped out of the Chesapeake Bay every year and almost 40 million by the end of the century.
Because of the massive amounts of tobacco crops planted by families, "indentured servants" were brought in from England to work on the farms. In exchange for working, they received transatlantic passage and eventual "freedom dues", including a few barrels of corn, a suit of clothes, and possibly a small piece of land.
Virginia and Maryland employed the "headright" system to encourage the importation of servant workers. Under its terms, whoever paid the passage of a laborer received the right to acquire 50 acres of land.
Chesapeake planters brought some 100,000 indentured servants to the region by 1700. These "white slaves" represented more than 3/4 of all European immigrants to Virginia and Maryland in the 17th Century.
In 1676, about 1,000 Virginians broke out of control - led by a 29-year-old planter, Nathaniel Bacon. They fiercely resented Virginia's Governor William Berkeley for his friendly policies towards the Indians. When Berkeley refused to retaliate for a series of savage Indian attacks on frontier settlements (due to his monopolization of the fur trading with them), the crowd took matters into their own hands. The crowd murderously attacked Indians and chased Berkeley from Jamestown, Virginia. They torched the capitol.
As the civil war in Virginia continued, Bacon suddenly died from disease. Berkeley took advantage of this and crushed the uprising, hanging more than 20 rebels. Charles II complained of the penalties dealt by Berkeley.
Due to the rebellions and tensions started by Bacon, lordly planters looked for other, less troublesome laborers to work their tobacco plantations. They soon looked to Africa.
Angry freemen and Bacon's Rebellion
ROYAL AFRICAN COMPANY
R.A.C. LOSES THEIR MONOPOLY
THE HALF-WAY COVENANT
About the middle of the 17th century, a new form of sermon began to be heard from Puritan pulpits - the "jeremiad."
Troubled ministers in 1662 announced a new formula for church membership, the Half-Way Covenant. This new arrangement modified the covenant, or the agreement between the church and its adherents, to admit to baptism-but not "full communion"-the unconverted children of existing members. This move upped the churches' memberships. This boost in membership was just what the money-stricken church needed.
Chapter 5 & Chapter 6
Anglican and Congretional
THE GREAT AWAKENING
Schools and Colleges
-Puritan New England was more interested in education than any other section. Dominated by the Congregational Church, it stressed the need for Bible reading by the individual worshiper.
College education was regarded very highly in New England.
-9 local colleges were established during the colonial era.
Americans: A People of Destiny
In 1763, Ottawa chief, Pontiac, led several tribes, aided by a handful of French traders who remained in the region, in a violent campaign to drive the British out of the Ohio country. His warriors captured Detroit in the spring of that year and overran all but 3 British outposts west of the Appalachians.
The British countered these attacks and eventually defeated the Indians.
London government issued the Proclamation of 1763. It prohibited settlement in the area beyond the Appalachians. (The Appalachian land was acquired after the British beat the Indians). It was made to prevent another bloody eruption between the settlers and Indians. Many colonists disregarded it.
SUGAR ACT 1764
STAMP ACT 1765
QUARTERING ACT 1765
DECLARATORY ACT 1766
TOWNSHED ACT 1767
TEA ACT 1773
The Continental Congress and Bloodshed
In 1774, the 1st Continental Congress met in Philadelphia in order to redress colonial grievances over the Intolerable Acts. The 13 colonies, excluding Georgia, sent 55 men to the convention. (The 1st Continental Congress was not a legislative body, rather a consultative body, and convention rather than a congress.)
WHAT WAS IT???
In April 1775, the British commander in Boston sent a detachment of troops to Lexington. They were to seize provisions of colonial gunpowder and to capture the "rebel" ringleaders, Samuel Adams and John Hancock. At Lexington, 8 Americans were shot and killed. This incident was labeled as the "Lexington Massacre." When the British went on to Concord, they were met with American resistance and there were over 300 casualties and 70 deaths. Because of this, the British had a war, rather than a rebellion on their hands.
June 15 George Washington named Commander in Chief
June 17 Battle of Bunker Hill: The British drive the Americans from Breed's Hill
July 3 Washington assumes command of the Continental Army
Nov. 10-21 Ninety Six, SC, Patriots sieges
Nov. 13 The patriots under Montgomery occupy Montreal in Canada
Dec. 11 Virginia and NC patriots rout Loyalist troops and burn Norfolk
Dec. 22 Col. Thomson with 1,500 rangers and militia capture Loyalists at Great Canebrake, SC
Dec. 23-30 Snow Campaign, in SC, so-called because patriots are impeded by 15" of snow
Dec. 30-31 American forces under Benedict Arnold fail to seize Quebec
Jan. 15 Paine's "Common Sense" published
Feb. 27 The patriots drive the Loyalists from Moore's Creek Bridge, North Carolina
March 17 The British evacuate Boston; British Navy moves to Halifax, Canada
June 8 Patriots fail to take Three Rivers, Quebec
June 28 Patriots decisively defeat the British Navy at Fort Moultrie, South Carolina
July 1 At the instigation of British agents, the Cherokee attack along the entire southern frontier
July 1-4 Congress debates and revises the Declaration of Independence. See Chronology of the Declaration
JULY 4TH 1776
We Declare Independence
BUT...It isn't over
General Washington at Bay
The British concentrated New York City as a base of operation due to the fact that Boston was evacuated in March 1776.
In 1776, General Washington and his men were overpowered by the British at the Battle of Long Island. Washington and his men escaped to Manhattan Island.
General William Howe was General Washington's adversary.
On December 26, 1776, Washington surprised and captured 1,000 Hessians who were sleeping.
The French come to the RESCUE!
After the shooting at Lexington in April 1775, French secretly provided arms to the Americans.
The British offered the Americans home rule after the Battle of Saratoga. The French didn't want Britain to regain its colonies for fear that Britain would seize the sugar rich French West Indies. In order to stop this, the French made an open alliance with the Americans in 1778, offering all the British did with the exception of independence
Yorktown and the Final Curtain
From 1780-1781, the U.S. government fell nearly bankrupt.
British General Cornwallis fell back to Chesapeake Bay at Yorktown to await seaborne supplies and reinforcements. This time in war was one of the few times when British naval superiority had been lacking. Admiral de Grasse offered to join the Americans in an assault of Cornwallis via the sea. George Washington, along with Rochambeau's army, and Admiral de Grasse cornered Cornwallis. He was forced to surrender on October 19, 1781.
Creating a Confederation
Shortly before declaring independence in 1776, the 2nd Continental Congress appointed a committee to draft a written constitution for the new nation. The finished product was the Articles of Confederation. It was adopted by Congress in 1777 and it convinced France that America had a genuine government in the making. The Articles of Confederation wasn't ratified by all 13 colonies until 1781.
Land Ordinance of 1785- stated that the acreage of the Old Northwest should be sold and the proceeds should be used to help pay off the national debt.
Northwest Ordinance of 1787- a uniform national land policy; created the Northwest Territories and gave the land to the government, the land could then be purchased by individuals; when a territory had 60,000 people, it might be admitted by Congress as a state, with all the privileges of the 13 other states.
in western Massachusetts in 1786; when impoverished back-country farmers, who were losing their farms through mortgage foreclosures and tax delinquencies, attempted to enforce their demands of cheap paper money, lighter taxes, and a suspension of property takeovers; led by Captain Daniel Shays. The uprising was crushed but it left fear in the propertied class of mobs
The "large-state plan" was proposed by Virginia and was first pushed forward as the framework of the Constitution. It said that the arrangement in Congress should be based upon a state's population.
New Jersey presented the "small-state plan." It centered on equal representation in Congress without regards to a state's size or population.
The "Great Compromise" of the convention was hammered out and finally agreed upon. It called for representation by population in the House of Representatives, and equal representation in the Senate. Each state would have 2 senators. The new Constitution also called for a President. Because of arguments over if the slaves would count towards the general population of the state, the "three-fifths compromise" was created
The Anti-federalists were led by Samuel Adams, Patrick Henry, and Richard Henry Lee. The followers consisted of states' rights devotees, back country dwellers, and one-horse farmers - in general, the poorest class.
Federalists were led by George Washington and Benjamin Franklin. Most of the Federalists lived in the settled areas along the seaboard. Overall, they were wealthier than the Anti-federalists, more educated, and better organized. They also controlled the press.
Other Key Things:
COME TO AMERICA
The massive immigration of the Europeans to America inflamed the prejudices of American nativists. The Roman Catholics created an entirely separate Catholic educational system to avoid the American Protestant educational system.
Many people died in riots and attacks between the two religions.
Eli Whitney- built the first cotton gin in 1793.
The cotton gin was much more effective at separating the cotton seed from the cotton fiber than using slaves. It affected not only America, but the rest of the world. Because of the cotton gin, the South's production of cotton greatly increased and the demand for cotton revived the demand for slavery.
COTTON GIN= MORE SLAVES
The Tariff of 1828- called the "Black Tariff" or the "Tariff of Abominations"; also called the "Yankee Tariff". It was hated by Southerners because it was an extremely high tariff and they felt it discriminated against them. The South was having economic struggles and the tariff was a scapegoat.
The "Corrupt Bargain" of 1824
There were 4 main "Republican" candidates in the election of 1824: Andrew Jackson, John Quincy Adams, William Crawford, and Henry Clay.
No candidate won the majority of the electoral votes, so, according to the Constitution, the House of Representatives had to choose the winner. Henry Clay, the Speaker of the House, was thus eliminated although he did have much say in who became president. Clay convinced the House to elect John Quincy Adams as president. Adams agreed to make Clay the Secretary of State for getting him into office. Much of the public felt that a "corrupt bargain" had taken place because Andrew Jackson had received the popular vote.
D I C O N T E N T
Highways and Steamboats
Lancaster Turnpike- hard-surfaced highway that ran from Philadelphia to Lancaster; drivers had to pay a toll to use it.
In 1811, the federal government began to construct the National Road, or Cumberland Road. It went from Cumberland, in western Maryland, to Illinois. Its construction was halted during the War of 1812, but the road was completed in 1852.
Robert Fulton- installed a steam engine and created the first steamboat.
The steamboat played a vital role in the opening of the West and South. It played a vital role in binding the West and South.
AGE OF REFORMS
Free Schools for a Free People
Tax-supported public education came about between 1825 -1850. Americans eventually saw they had to educate their children because the children were the future. The teachers of the schools were mostly men and did not know how to teach. There were not very many schools in the U.S. because of their high costs to communities.
Horace Mann- campaigned effectively for a better schooling system.
Dorothy Dix- traveled the country, visiting different asylums; released a report on insanity and asylums; her protests resulted in improved conditions for the mentally ill.
Feminists met at Seneca Falls, New York in a Woman's Rights Convention in 1848 to rewrite the Declaration of Independence to include women.
The White Majority
In the South, the free blacks were prohibited from having certain jobs and forbidden from testifying against whites in court. They were known as the "3rd Race."
In the North, the free blacks as individuals were hated more than in the South.
White southerners liked the black as an individual, but hated the race. The white northerner professed to like the race, but disliked the individual.
The Gag Resolution required all anti-slavery appeals to be tabled without debate in the House of Representatives.
In 1835, the government ordered the southern postmasters to destroy abolitionist material due to anti-abolitionist mobbing and rioting at a postal office in Charleston, South Carolina.
The North's Economic Boom
Newly invented laborsaving machinery enabled the North to expand economically. Mechanical reapers (farm machines used to harvest grain) allowed for men to leave the farms for the war and provided grain that contributed to Northern profits.
The discovery of petroleum in Pennsylvania in 1859 led to a rush of people known as the "Fifty-Niners."
The Civil War opened up many jobs for women that were originally occupied by men.
A Crashed Cotton Kingdom
The North's blockade severely hampered the South's economy. Transportation in the South collapsed during the Civil War. Cotton capitalism had lost out to industrial capitalism.