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BTEC Level 3 Sport Anatomy and Physiology

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katherine fewster

on 28 September 2015

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Transcript of BTEC Level 3 Sport Anatomy and Physiology

Think, Pair, Share!

Write down
everything
you know about
the bones you're given - 2mins!
What does the bone look like?
Where is it?
What bones/muscles attach to it?
Does that bone have a purpose?

Swap your ideas with a partner - 2mins!

Share with the class!
The bigger picture!
The Vertebral Column
Also know as the _____ or backbone.
Extends from the base o the ______ to the pelvis.
Providing a central ____ for the body.
It is made up of __ irregular bones called _________.
The vertebral column accounts for around __% of a person's
height.
Vertebrae are held together by powerful ________.
These allow little movement, but allow a fair amount of _________ as a whole spine.
The vertebral column protects the ______ cord and supports the _______.
The larger vertebrae of the ______ supports a lot of body weight.
The flatter _______ vertebrae attach to the larger ______ of the
back and curves of the spine-4 in total.
Along with invertebral discs, recieve and distribute impact
that is associated with the _________ functioning of the
body in action.
The skeletal system is made up of:
- Bones
,
cartilage
and
joints
.
-
206
bones.

2 groups
- Axial skeleton (80 bones): on the long axis
- Appendicular skeleton (126 bones)
Unit 1: Principles of Anatomy & Physiology in Sport.
Axial Skeleton
Level 3 BTEC Sport
Unit 1 Physiology & Anatomy

What am I doing?
- Mandatory and optional units.
- Assignments.
- Pass, Merit, Distinction.
- Different assignments can be worth different grades.
- Different assignments can be in different formats.

With a partner...
Use your post-it's to identify where each bone (below) is.
If you're not sure...guess!

-

Cranium
- Clavicle
- Ribs
- Sternum
- Humerus
- Radius

- Ulna
- Scapula
- Ilium
- Pubis
- Ishium
- Carpals

Check your bones, change if you need to!
L.O) To understand and explain the structure of the skeletal system.
- Skeletal System
Max. is a Pass (P1, P2, P3)
- Muscular System
Max. is a distinction (P4, M1, D1)
- Cardiovasular System
Max. is a merit (P5, M2)
- Respiratory System
Max. is a merit (P6, M3)
- Energy Systems
Max. is a distinction
(P7, M4, D2)
Ischium
Sternum
Ribs
Forms the mains axis or core of your skeletal system.
-
Skull
-
Thorax
(sternum & ribs)
-
Vertebral column
(spine)
Axial Skeleton
Appendicular Skeleton
Appendicular Skeleton
-
60
bones form the
upper limbs
-
humerous
,
radius
,
ulna
, 8
carpals
, 5
metacarpals
& 14
phalanges
.
-
60
bones form the
lower limbs
-
femur
,
tibia
,
fibula
,
patella
, 7
tarsals
, 5
metatarsals
& 14
phalanges
.
The above are designed to
bear weight
,
move
and
maintain posture
.

- The
shoulders
are made up of
4 bones: 2 clavicles & 2 scapulae
.
- The
pelvic girdle
is made up of
3 bones: the illium, pubis & ischium
. These fuse with age and are called the
innominate
bone.
- the pelvic girdle is vital for
weight

distribution
and
attaches
to powerful muscles
in the lower limbs and back.
-
protects
the digestive and reproductive organs.
Illium
- at the
base of the spine
.
- provides
sockets for hip joints
.
-
supports
lower abdominal muscles.
-
largest bone in the pelvic girdle.
- top of illium is the illiac crest
Ischium
- underneath the
illium
.
Tarsals
-
7
of these in the
foot
and
heel
.
-
form the ankle
with the tibia and fibula.
- they're
short & irregular
- the
calcaneus
(heel bone) is the largest tarsal bone.
- helps
support body weight.
- prodvides the
attachment of the calf muscles.
Metatarsals
-
5
form the
dorsal surface
(top of foot).
- attach to
phalanges
- have to
bear a lot of weight!
Vertebrae
Increase in size from the top down and are classified as follows:
- Cervical Vertebrae (in the neck)
- Thoracic Vertebrae (in the chest area)
- Lumbar Vertebrae (in the small of the back)
- Sacral Vertebrae (fused vertebrae that form the sacrum)
- Coccygeal Vertebrae (fused vertebrae that form the coccyx)

There are 24 moveable vertebrae, separated by invertebral discs (act as shock absorbers).
Continued...
Cervical - first 2 are the atlas (C1) & the axis
(C2).They form a pivot joint that allows the head
and neck to move. Smallest and most vunerable
vertebrae.
Thoracic - Articulate with te ribs. They help protect the lungs and heart.
Sacrum - 5 bones fused together to form the sacrum (triangular bone). Forms back wall of the pelvic girdle.

Coccyx - 4 coccygeal vertebrae that are fused to form the coccyx or tail bone.
Types of Major Bone
Long bones
are found in the limbs.
- have a shaft called the diaphysis & two expanded ends known as the epiphysis.

Short bones
are small, light, cube-shaped bones consisting of cancellous (open/porous) bone surrounded by a thin layer of compact bone.
- carpals and tarsals are examples.

Flat bones
are thin, flattened & slightly curved & have a large surface area.
- scapulae, sternum & cranium are examples.

Sesamoid bones
have a specialised function.
- usually found within a tendon such as the patella.

Irregular bones
have complex shapes.
- the vertebrae in the spine are an example.
Locations of Major Bones
Term Meaning
Anterior

Posterior

Medial

Lateral

Proximal

Distal

Superior

Inferior
To the front or
in front
.

To the rear

or
beh
ind.

Towards the midline.

Away from the midline.

Near to the root or origin.

Away from the root or origin

Above

Below
Gd: Identify the functions of the skeleton
Gr: Describe the different functions of the skeleton
Eb: Explain each part of a long bone
O: Create a drawing of a long bone to support your
knowledge and understanding
(p1)
Functions of the skeletal system.
Functions of the skeletal system
Support
Protection
Attachment for skeletal muscles
Store of minerals
Source of blood cell prodection
Bones give your body shape & provide frame for soft tissue.
bones protect vital soft tissue & organs.
Some parts of the skeleton provide a surface for muscles to attach to, allowing movement.
Muscles act as levers & movement occurs at joints.
Bones act as a reservoir for minerals such as calcium & phosphorus, vital for bone growth and health.
These are released into the bloodstream as necessary to maintain the balance of minerals in the body.
Bones are not completely solid. Blood vessels feed the centre of your bones where there is bone marrow being stored. Bone marrow is always producing red & white blood cells.
Joints
Joints
Joints are vital for movement and are formed where 2 or more bones meet. There are 3 types of joint.
Fixed
- Also known as fibrous or immoveable.
- They do not move.
- They interlock and overlap and are held together bands of tough, fibrous tissue.
- E.g: cranium

Slightly Moveable
- Also known as cartilaginous joints.
- Allow slight movement.
- Ends of bones are covered in articular or hyaline cartilage, separated by by pads of white fibrocartilage.
- Slight movement is possible as the pads compress.
- E.g: vertebrae
Joints Continued...
Synovial Joints
- Also known as freely moveable joints.
- Offer highest level of movement.
- Consist of 2 + bones.
- the ends of these bones are covered with articular cartilage, allowing a minimum amount of friction.

- Make up most of the joints in your limbs.
- Surrounded by a fibrous capsule.
- lined with a synovial membrane which secretes synovial fluid into the joint cavity to lubricate & nourish the joint.
- this capsule is held together by ligaments.
- this provides strength to avoid dislocation whilst being flexible enough to allow movement.

All synovial joints have:
- a joint capsule to hold joints in place and protect the joint.
- a synovial membrane to secrete synovial fluid.
- a joint cavity where synovial fluid pools to lubricate the joint.
- articular cartilage on the ends of the bones to minimise friction.
- ligaments to hold the bones in place (bone to bone)
- Tendons hold muscle to bone

There are different types of synovial joints.

Synovial Joints
Hinge
Allow movement in 1 direction only.
(Flexion/ extension)
- E.g. knee, elbow.
Ball & Socket
The round end of a bone fits into a cup-shaped socket in the other bone, allowing movements in all directions.
- E.g. hips, shoulders.
Ellipsoid/ Condyloid
Also known as condyloid joints.
- modified version of the ball and socket joint.
- a bump on one bone sits ithe hollow part of another bone.
- movement is backwards, forwards and side to side.
- ligaments prevent rotation.
- E.g: wrist joint
Synovial Joints Continued...
Gliding
- Movement over a smooth surface in all directions.
- Restricted by ligaments or a bony prominence.
- E.g: carpals & tarsals in the wrists & ankles.
Pivot
A ring of one fits over a peg of another.
- Allows rotational movement.
- E.g: atlas and axis in the neck.
Saddle
Similar to condyloid joints.
- surfaces are concave and convex.
- movement backwards, forwards and side to side.
- E.g: base of the thumb
Types of Movement
What are these types of movements?
SXTEEINON

AUCTDOINB

DDANOICUT

NOIROTAT

IPORTATN
INSUPTOININA

ANTPLRA LEIONF

ORDSILFXTEONI

PREYHP-TETIXNO
Types of Movement
Extension
- Straightening a limb
- Increasing the angle at a joint
Abduction
- movement away from the body
Adduction
- movement towards the body
Rotation
- circular movement of a limb.
Pronation
- inward rotation of the forearm
Watch the video... which functions
of the skeleton can you identify?
Which other functions of the skeleton are there?
Around the room there
is information about the
skeleton...

Find it...

Which are true and false?

Match the information
with the correct function
How did you do??
Think Pair Share
Identify the functions of the
skeleton
Which elements do you need
to work on?
Which of these are long bones?
femur
phalanges
skull
ulna
Structure of a Long Bone
Cancellous bone
neck of the femur
red bone marrow
Compact bone
Yellow bone marrow
Articular surface
Draw a diagram
of the Long Bone
and label each section
correctly
Let's
have a look at
what each
part does...
Video time
What are the main parts of the long bone?
What role does each part play?
Description of the main parts of the
Long bone

The roles and functions of:
Spongy Bone-
Is a layer of bone that protects the bone marrow. It may also be called Cancellous bone.

Compacted Bone-
Compact bone is what is found on the outside of bones. It is the hard outer layer/shell that gives bones their even white appearance. Also it is a lot heavier than the spongy bone
.

Periosteum-
This is the outer layer of the long bone which contains nerves and blood vessels. It is connected to the long bone by strong fibres and it also provides an attachment for muscles and tendons.


Your Task
You should
create a document using your knowledge about the
functions of the skeleton, the long bone
and it's main parts...
The great Post it Challenge
Write a key word from today
and stick it to a partners head, they must ask YES/ NO questions to guess what it is. They should write one for you...
FIRST one to guess it ... wins
Watch the video, what can you learn
about the joints within our body?
learning Objective:
To acquire and develop
knowledge of the joints within our body
Outcomes:
Gd: Label a joint using the correct terms
Gr: Describe the different parts of a joint
Eb: Explain the difference between the 3 different joints
O: Explain each of the synovial joints and evaluate the movement available at each

(p2)
Task-
label the synovial
joint correctly
Which joints allow these movements?
Bone Growth
Growth Plates- Are located at the end of long
bones where they allow them to grow to their characteristic length.

Ossification- Is the natural development process of bone formation., cartilage into bone
Osteoblasts- Are cells from which bones develop.
Osteoclasts- Are cells that cause bones to breakdown.

You should include the
role of the following
synovial fluid
synovial membrane
synovial capsule
ligaments
tendons.
Full transcript