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(29) Olmec- Maya- Aztec- Inca AND Japan
Transcript of (29) Olmec- Maya- Aztec- Inca AND Japan
No one really knows what caused the collapse of the Mayan culture
- went into decline during the 8th and 9th centuries
Mayan Decline theories include
overpopulation, foreign invasion, peasant revolt, and the collapse of key trade routes, environmental disaster, epidemic disease, and climate change
Mayans don’t have one calendar, they have many calendars which often interlocked
- In fact, the Mayans make many references to dates that fall beyond 2012
Mayans played a
. The game was played with a ball roughly the size of a volleyball but made from rubber and heavier-
heads and skulls were also depicted in this game and can be theorized that these were the heads of slaves, traitors, criminals, or conquered peoples.
Some historians believe the
sacrifices and cannibalism
may have been due to a protein deficiency.
Aztec’s performed sacrifices for rituals to their gods
and to people in order
20,000 people were ritually sacrificed
by the Aztecs every year
The Aztecs had a
unique system for slavery- more like indentured servitude
- slaves could also own other slaves
They had an
advanced system for writing and keeping records
. The Aztecs had their own language and it was called N’ahuatl, the alphabet for this language was a form of picture writing- this would often be done on deer skin or bark
The Aztecs themselves actually
referred to themselves as Mexica
, which is actually where the name for the country of Mexico originally came from.
The Inca people believed in reincarnation.
Those who religiously obey this code will live in the warmth of the Sun and those don’t will spend their eternal days in the cold earth.
Machu Picchu or the “Lost City of the Incas”
was not seen by Europeans until 1911, when these spectacular ruins were discovered
near Cuzco, Peru – the capital of the Inca Empire.
Seeds, tools, clothing and food were distributed by the government.
Inca emperors ruled as paternal dictators of a communistic society in which all land belonged to the government
- Money was not used in Inca society and not needed.
The emperor, who held absolute power, is believed to be descended directly from the sun god.
The quipu is a series of colored, knotted strings. The type of knot indicated a number, and the knot's placement signified units of 1, 10, 100, or more. All the cords hung from a main string, and their positions and colors likely signaled what was being counted—gold, corn, or other goods.
Japan is an
(a chain of islands) of specifically four main islands located in Asia, off the coast of Korea and Russia
Sea of Japan separates Japan from the Asian mainland
It is close to neighbors Korea and China
Japan's cultural development was influenced by the fact that they're close to China
Shinto and Buddhism are two religions that coexisted as religious traditions in Japanese culture
Influence of Chinese culture on Japan:
China also gave writing and architecture styles to Japan.
Japanese writing is similar to Chinese characters.
Japanese temples or pagodas and palaces look like their Chinese counterparts.
A Japanese Pagoda, or religious temple or shrine, is similar to ones built in China
A Torii, or gate, that marks the entrance to a Shinto shrine.
Ethnic religion unique to Japan
Importance of natural features, forces of nature, and ancestors
State religion, worship of the Emperor
Co-existence with Buddhism
It started at least as long ago as 1000 B.C.E. but is still practiced today by at least five million people.
The followers of Shintoism believe that spiritual powers exist in the natural world.
1185 - 1603
HIERARCHY IN FEUDAL JAPAN
Society was divided into two classes in Feudal Japan, the nobility and the peasants. The noble class made up roughly twelve percent of the population with peasants making up the rest.
Emperor & Shogun
The Emperor and the Shogun were the highest ranking nobles.
During Japan's feudal period the Shogun held the most power while the Emperor was more of a puppet figure with little actual power.
As the Shogun was a military leader his sword was an important part of his attire.
Diamyo were powerful warlords and the most powerful rulers under the Shogun from the 10th century to the early 19th century.
Within their province the Diamyo had complete military and economic power.
Diamyo had vast hereditary land holdings and armies to protect the land and its workers.
The most powerful warlords sometimes achieved the status of Shogun.
Samurai worked under Daimyo, but they had additional privileges and held a higher social status than common people.
These privileges included being able to have a surname, a family crest, and carry two swords.
People with Samurai family names are still treated with great respect in Japan today.
Had a strict code of honor or the "way of the warrior", known as the Code of Bushido
If a Samurai broke the bushido code and brought dishonor to him/herself they would be expected to commit seppuku, or ritual suicide.
Women were allowed to serve as samurai but always served under a male leader.
practiced human sacrifice
for religious and medical reasons
Polytheistic and were ruled by a god like king- had temples for sacrifices
Chichen Itza which means “at the mouth of the well of Itza " is the most famous ruin/ temple of the Mayans
Health and medicine
among the ancient Maya was a complex blend of mind, body, religion, ritual, and science.
Important to all,
medicine was practiced only by a select few who were given an excellent education
.- the Maya sutured wounds with human hair, reduced fractures, and were even skilled dental surgeons
Aztecs were actually defeated by disease, not war
. The Aztecs actually had a fairly good chance at beating the Spanish and the overall war was a fairly close one.
It can be easily said that if not for the
smallpox contracted from the Europeans that wiped out so many of them
, especially their leaders, that it is extremely unlikely they would have fallen to the Spanish.
Tenochtitlan-The Aztec capital of Tenochtitlán
(at modern Mexico City) was founded in 1325 on a muddy island in the lake that at that time filled the Basin of Mexico.
Surrounded by "floating gardens" - artificially created islands
where produce was grown - Tenochtitlán was joined to the mainland by three causeways- An aqueduct supplied fresh water
Incas were known to use peculiar
musical instruments like Bone flutes.
The Inca people
spoke the Quecha language and used the Quipu in writing
. This device consisted of cords of different lengths and colors.
They were advanced farmers
who used fertilizers and constructed
networks of canals and ditches to irrigate their fields.
Lived in the Andes Mountains- the Inca dug terraces on mountains sides used to farm this is called terrace farming
They also had an extensive sytem/ network of roads and were often called the “Romans of the Americas”