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Geology Project

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Emily Frick

on 2 October 2012

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Transcript of Geology Project

Emma Mayes + Leigh Norman Geology Project What is a mineral? Ore Minerals
Gems A gem is a precious or semi-precious stone, especially when cut and polished or engraved Rocks A rock is a solid mineral material forming part of the surface of the earth and other planets Diving deeper... Lexington, VA A solid inorganic substance of natural occurrence Minerals are formed by cooling magma, cooling lava, formed from solutions, and hot underground water Examples 1. Quartz
~the ideal crystal shape is a six sided prism with six sided pyramids at each end 2. Topaz
~ mixture of aluminum and fluorine 3. Gold
~is a dense, soft, malleable, and ductile metal Identifying minerals Identified by whether it is naturally occurring, inorganic, a solid, its chemical composition, and its crystal structure Moh's Scale Measures and identifies minerals by its hardness Minerals used Daily... 1. Alum
~Cosmetics + dye 2. Graphite
~Pencils + locks 3. Cobalt
~Magnets + alloys An ore mineral is a type of rock that contains minerals with important elements and metals Examples of Ore Minerals 1. Cinnabar
~Medicine + pigment 2. Celestine
~produces color in fireworks 3. Iron
~Automobiles, dye + stainless steel Examples 1. Marble-

Formed from metamorphism of sedimentary carbonate rocks

Looks: Comes in many colors, but commonly white; gritty looking, but smooth when polished Looks: Coarse looking; come is many colors including white, black, and red; speckled 2. Granite-

Formed from magma 3. Sandstone-

Formed first by sedimentation, then is put under constant pressure

Looks: layered; coarse-grained, light sandy color How to classify different types of rock Rocks are classified by:

1. minerals + chemical makeup
2. texture of the constituent particles
3. how they were formed (i.e.- cooling magma) Types of rocks -Metamorphic
~Pressure -Igneous
~Magma -Sedimentary
~sediments+pressure Rock Cycle 1. Igneous rock forms when magma cools and creates hard crystals. Soon the crystals are weathered down into sediments 2. Layers of sediments come together and after time they cement together until they become sedimentary rock 3. Heavy heat and pressure morph and change the new rock. Earth’s tectonic plates move about. They start causing heat with their friction and forming metamorphic mountains 4. Soon these metamorphic mountains are chipped away by streams, forced underground again. Those once strong forces are melted into magma, starting the rock cycle again Top Minerals
1. Pyrite
~High pressure
~Pale-yellow-dark brown color; greenish-black streak; looks like gold(fool's gold)
~Used in jewelry, paper + car batteries
2. Quartz
~Clear-milky color; white streak
~Used in glass, watches, radios + soap Top Rock- limestone
~High pressure
~White; grainy; looks powdery
~Used in cement, antacids + paint Springfield, KY Top 2 Minerals
1. Barite
~High pressure;byproduct of mining metal ores
~Blue-clear-yellow-grey; brittle; white streak
~Used in plastic + medical applications 2. Gypsum
~Abundance of calcium + sulfur
~Used in fertilizer, plaster + tofu Top Rock-Granite
~Magma deep underground
~Many colors; coarse looking
~Used for counter tops, floors + gravestones Minneapolis, MN Top 2 Minerals
1. Thomsonite
~High Pressure
~Clear-white-beige; white streak
~Used in rings + beads Top rock- Basalt
~Rapid cooling lava
~Grey-black; fine grained
~Used in flooring, window sills + counter tops 2. Iron
~abundance of oxygen
~shiny; grey-red-purple-yellow
~Used in dyes, automobiles + stainless steel Denver, CO 1. Gold
~Gold color; malleable; ductile
~Used in dentistry, medicine, jewelry + medallions Top rock- Siltstone
~Gray; soft + crumbly; can feel (but can't see) the grains
~Used in sculptures, buildings + soil 2. Copper
~Grey-brown; grey streak
~Used in wiring, water pipes, jewelry + outer coverings on ships Top 2 Minerals Sacramento, CA Top 2 Minerals
~dark red-copper-green-yellow; shiny
~Used in jewelry 2.Inesite
~Abundance of calcium
~Rose red-pink-orange; prismatic
~Used in jewelry Top rock- Serpentine
~Shiny; green-blue;
~Used in jewelry + carvings The End Also Identified by color, luster, streak, hardness, cleavage, and chemical composition ~Best way to identify mineral is by hardness
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