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The American Revolution
Transcript of The American Revolution
Lexington and Concord
Sir Thomas Gage-British General
Instructed to take away the weapons of Massachusetts Militia and arrest the leaders
Sent 700 troops to Concord where the militia was storing ammunition
The British Are Coming!
Paul Revere and William Dawes-(Sons of Liberty Members) alerted Samuel Adams “The British are coming!”
Shouted throughout the country side to warn the people
Samuel Adams proclaimed “What a glorious morning this is!”
The British Reach Lexington
The British were surprised to see 70 minutemen who were armed and ready
A shot was fired and when it was over, 8 minutemen lay dead
British discovered most of the ammunition was moved
Destroyed remaining supplies
As the British marched the farmers, blacksmiths, saddle makers and clerks hid behind trees and fired at them
174 wounded, 73 dead
"The Shot Heard Around the World"
Ralph Waldo Emerson wrote in “The Concord Hymn”
“By the rude bridge that arched the flood,Their flag to April's breeze unfurled,Here once the embattled farmers stood,And fired the shot heard round the world.”
The War for American Independence has begun
Battle of Bunker Hill
Patriot Commander: William Prescott
POP QUIZ #3
British wanted to drive Americans from their strategic locations and assembled at the bottom of Breed’s Hill
Patriots were low on ammunition: Prescott proclaimed, “Don’t fire until you see the whites of their eyes!”
British faced fierce fire and retreated and sent in two more waves
Patriots ran out of gunpowder and ended up retreating
British Victory at Bunker Hill
The British WON the Battle, however...
Suffered many losses
More than 1000 dead and wounded
Learned defeating the Americans WOULD NOT be quick or easy
Low Point for the Patriots
Winter of 1776-1777
Size of the army dwindled
Some soldiers left after one year, some ran away
Washington—"I think the game is pretty near up…” he wrote his brother
Armies usually stopped their wars during the winter, so the British did not expect to fight. Washington, who was stationed across the Delaware River from the British camp, saw a chance to catchthe British off guard.
George Washington Crosses the Delaware
On Christmas night, Washington took 2,400 troops across the icy river and surprised the enemy at Trenton the next day capturing 900 Hessians. (German Hired Mercenaries)
The Battle of Saratoga
Battle of Saratoga
British forced to surrender
France is convinced that colonists actually have a chance to win
France's aid became open & substantial
France officially recognized American independence
Turning Point in the War
February 1778 French declared war on Britain and sent money, equipment, and troops to aid American Patriots.
POP QUIZ #4
Valley Forge-Winter of 1778
Word of Allies didn’t reach American troops until the Spring of 1778. Washington set up camp for the winter at Valley Forge.
Challenges at Valley Forge
Keeping the Continental Army together
¼ of Washington’s troops die
Lack of decent food, clothing, or shelter.
Lack of shoes and blankets.
Many men deserted, or left without permission
Leaders at Valley Forge
September, 1781: a combined American –French force attacked British General Cornwallis at Yorktown
French fleet blocked any British retreat by sea
British forces were trapped
Treaty of Paris of 1783
British Negotiators refused to sit for this picture!
What happened at Yorktown?
The British army set up camp on a peninsula
Washington’s army blocks them in to the west and the French Navy blocks them to the east.
They are trapped and help cannot arrive
General Cornwallis (Britain) surrenders!
The Continental Army WINS
Free from British Rule No more King!
They are their own country
What did George Washington do after the war?
George Washington returned to his home, Mount Vernon, where he planned to live quietly with his family.
“Having now finished the work assigned me I retire... and take my leave of all the employments of public life.”
How did that plan work out for him?
“The future of America is closely bound up with the future of all mankind" --Marquis de Lafayette
Treaty of Paris, 1783
Peace talks included United States, Britain, France, & Spain.
American negotiators: Benjamin Franklin, John Adams, & John Jay.
Low Point For The Troops
Baron von Steuben (Prussia)-helped train soldiers who survived and turned them into a disciplined fighting force
Marquis de Lafayette (France)-trusted aide to Washington
Martha Washington-tended to the sick
Valley Forge Video