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Global Reorganization and Crisis WHAP
Transcript of Global Reorganization and Crisis WHAP
AP World History
African Unity and Crisis
Created in 2001 to replace to OAU (Organization of African Unity).
Success and stability not guaranteed.
Chad, Sudan, Uganda, Somalia, Congo, and Rwanda have all had on-going civil wars.
Attempts to form stable democracies have been thwarted by corruption, military coups, and escalating debt payments.
New natural resources: palm oil, rubber, nickel, and lithium make Africa economically viable, and thus industrial nations are invested.
Globalization of NGOs
Nongovernmental Organizations (NGOs) are typically private, nonprofit agencies that provide relief services and/or advocacy for groups that aren't serviced by their gov't.
Red Cross, Doctors Without Borders, Amnesty International, World Wildlife Fund, and American Civil Liberties Union.
Usually lead relief after natural disasters, wars, and poverty-stricken nations.
Why post-WWII? Major global organizations (UN, World Bank) were criticized for only representing wealthiest and powerful nations. So private companies filled the needs not met by world's governments. Also, technology in global age allows for easier communication and fundraising.
Rwanda: Ethnic Genocide
Ethnic strife, genocide, and human rights violations stem from conflicts between the Tutsi (15% pop) who governed the Hutu (85% pop) during German/Belgian colonial occupation.
Rwanda's independence in 1962 led to Hutu revolt.
1973 military coup by Juvenal Habyarimana established a one-party republic in 1981 while Tutsi refugees create an army in Uganda.
Gov't agreement b/t Hutu and Tutsi, but assassination of Habyarimana in 1994 led to Hutu killing 800,000 Tutsis in Rwanda.
When the Tutsi army took over most of Rwanda, including Kigali, 2 million Hutus fled and became refugees in Zaire/Congo.
Independence in Africa and India
South Africa: Rise and Fall of Apartheid
1910, Union of South Africa was formed. They gave the British and Dutch colonists rights to self-government, however native Africans were entirely excluded from political sphere.
1923: residential segregation.
1926: banned from skilled occupations whites wanted.
1931: independence from BR.
1948: established apartheid to separate black from white (80%). By the 50s, extended into creation of "homelands" less than 15% of land. If didn't move to homelands, had to move to slums.
Response? Black community organized behind Nelson Mandela and the African National Congress (organization to abolish apartheid).
At first he promoted peaceful protest, like Gandhi.
1960 Sharpeville massacre: 67 protestors killed. Afterwards, ANC supported guerilla warfare.
1964 Mandela arrested for his role in anti-apartheid violence and sentenced to life imprisonment.
Mandela was released in 1990 after mounting pressure from black majority and the international community.
1994 apartheid abolished and Mandela was elected president in the first free and open election in the nation's history.
The Middle East
Middle East Recap
Post WWI: Ottoman Empire collapsed.
Treaty of Versailles gave their lands to the League of Nations.
France put in charge of Syria and Lebanon.
Britain got Palestine, Jordan, and Iraq.
Persia (Iran) had already been divided into spheres of influence b/t BR and RU during 1800s.
Arabia united into Saudi Arabia immediately following the fall of the Ottomans.
Israel: Balfour Declares a Mess
Remember back in Roman Empire, the Hebrews occupied lands in Palestine, but as we have learned, with time come shifts in power and culture. While a few Jews continued to stay in the region, most moved to Europe or other areas while Palestine became increasingly Islamic. All the while, many Jews wanted to return to what they believed was the "promised land." but, in the meantime, generation after generation of Muslim Palestinians had made that land home.
Balfour Declaration of 1917: gave the right for a home in Palestine for the Jewish people, but also stated it shouldn't displace the Palestinians who already lived there.
1920: BR gained control of Palestine as a mandate.
Declaration tried to make them divide land they both claimed, and at this time many Russian Jews, fleeing violent anti-Semitic mobs (pogroms), began to flee to Palestine. Many more Jews came during the 1930s making Palestinians uneasy.
1948, UN created two Palestines: one for Jews and the other for Muslims.
David Ben-Gurion, 1st Prime Minister of Israel, announced creation of Jewish homeland.
This led to the 1948 Arab-Israeli War: Jews end with most of Palestine, while Jordan held the West Bank. Led to no home for Palestinians.
As more Jews came to Israel, led to more skirmishes.
Six Days' War: 1967, this included Egypt.
Camp David Accords: 1977, b/t Israel PM Begin and Egyptian Pres Sadat. Israel pulled out of Sinai Peninsula and Egypt recognized Israel as a state.
Sadat assassinated as a result.
Still fighting over West Bank, Golan Heights, and Gaza Strip.
Palestinian Liberation Organization: trying to establish a Palestinian state, but unsuccessful b/c of on-again off-again uses of terrorism.
2000, Israeli PM Ariel Sharon approved construction of wall. Often compared to Berlin Wall.
Arab-Israeli Conflict In 21st Century
2003, US, EU, UN, and RU proposed a Roadmap to Peace.
Stalled until death of Palestinian Pres (and former PLO leader) Yassir Arafat in 2004.
New president Mahmoud Abbas signed cease-fire w/ Israel.
Disengagement Plan: Israelis to leave Gaza Strip and West Bank.
Divisions within Palestine: Fatah (part of PLO) and Hamas. Hamas openly uses terrorism against Israel. Fatah leadership not recognized by Hamas, but US and international community don't work w/ Hamas b/c of terrorism.
ISR PM Netanyahu willing to work with Fatah PM Fayyad.
ISR border w/ Lebanon and Syria (Hezbollah: militant Shia group backed by Syria and Iran).
Reza Shah Pahlavi ousted Shah who let Persia fall to EURO spheres of influence in 1925. Decided to westernize (like JP).
Gained momentum in the 60s: land reform, right for women (vote, college, dress).
Angered Islamic fundamentalists who wanted to reinstate Sharia law.
Angered those who wanted more democratic changes.
After US Pres Carter visited, let to Iranian Revolution in 1979. Theocracy led by Ayatollah (Mirror of God) Khomeini (Shia caliph).
Iran-Iraq War in 1980, over border disputes, Saddam Hussein had a lil US support b/c we were mad about Iranian Hostage Crisis.
Now in the news you hear about Iran's nuclear tech: we should hear about the nuclear deal soon.
Oil and the Middle East
2/3 of world's known oil reserves. ME Nations like Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Iran, and Iraq earned billions of dollars annually.
1960, region united with other oil-exporting nations (Venezuela) to form OPEC (3/4 of petroleum reserves). Since 70s haven't kept members in line, so not as effective over world economy.
Gulf War 1991
Saddam Hussein invaded Kuwait b/c they wanted Kuwait's oil, and launch into UAE and Iran.
UN w/ US lead sent in troops to get Iraq out of Kuwait. UN then put tabs on Iraq for monitoring and economic sanctions.
2003, UN w/ US and BR ousted Hussein fom power and formed a democracy in 2005. However, have seen religious conflict. Do have elected officials, but not clear how stable it will be.