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Hypertension Concept Map
Transcript of Hypertension Concept Map
A 58 year old female that has chronic hypertension and history
of headaches and joint pain. Head to toe assessment reveals that
all cranial nerves are working as expected and that she is not at
risk for falls or skin breakdown. PERRLA is found on multiple
visits and she is continually alert and oriented x4. No signs of
edema or muscle weakness. Cap refill is less than 2 seconds. She reports drinking occasional alcohol with her family. No history of smoking or recreational drug use. Current pain level is at a 6/10 (headache) and she reports that at a 3/10 she is able to function properly.
Hypertension, also known as high blood pressure,
is a measure of the force against the walls of the
arteries as the heart pumps blood through the body.
It increases the risk of associated heart diseases such
as stroke, myocardial infarction, kidney failure or
heart failure, and other vascular complications.
The only way to determine the presence of HTN is by having your blood pressure checked.
(n.d.). Hypertension/High Blood Pressure Health Center
06/02/2013. Retrieved from http://www.webmd.com/hypertension-high-blood-pressure/guide/hypertension-diagnosis-tests
(n.d.). What is Hypertension? What causes hypertension 06/02/2013
Retrieved from http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/150109.php
by Jenny McCullough
Risks and Implications
Some causes are:
Vitamin D deficiency
high levels of alcohol consumption
chronic kidney disease
Vital signs are:
BP: 126/74 P: 62 R: 28 T: 98.4 F O2: 99%
Signs and Symptoms
Ear noise or buzzing
Normal BP is a systolic of less that 120 mmHg and a diastolic less than 80 mmHg. (<120/80)
Prehypertension happens when the BP is 120/80 to 139/89
Stage 1 HTN ranges from 140/90 to 159/99
Stage 2 HTN has a systolic greater than 160 mmHg and a diastolic greater than 100 mmHg (>160/100)
Thiazide diuretics, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs), Calcium channel blockers, Renin inhibitors, Alpha blockers, Alpha-Beta blockers, Central-acting agents.
Some of the medications can lower your heart rate, some thin out the blood. Risk of stroke is common with many of the medications used to treat HTN. Vasodilators work on muscles in the walls of your arteries and prevent them from narrowing. All medications should be taken exactly as prescribed by the doctor and before taking any OTCs be sure to consult with your primary care provider.
Nursing Diagnosis #1
Activity intolerance related to low oxygen intake as evidenced by flushing and breathlessness.
Nursing Diagnosis #2
Insufficient knowledge related to lack of resources as evidenced by deficit in self-care.
Nursing Diagnosis #3
Risk for imbalanced nutrition, more than body requirements related to poor diet based on disease as would be evidenced by increasing weight gain.
Short and Long Term Goals
Identify appropriate food choices, keeping a daily log for three days to determine what foods are currently being eaten and which ones may contribute to the elevated blood pressure.
Maintain a low sodium diet for three months
Patient teaching on importance of diet to deal with hypertension. Check labels of store bought food so that patient is aware of sodium that is in all foods.
Check blood pressure at the same time in the same position each time for most accurate comparison.
Stress can add to blood pressure issues. Keep a log of situations that cause stress to determine if some can be removed from daily life, and how to better deal with those that cannot be removed.