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Lung Cancer

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blerta ceka

on 16 April 2015

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Transcript of Lung Cancer

Lung Cancer
Matura Presentation
Student: Blerta Ceka
Mentor: Nora Limani
Class 4a
Spring 2015
The Human Lungs
The lungs' functional system
Lung Cancer Under the Microscope
The history of Lung cancer
-identified as a disease in mid 1700's
-in first 200 sightings, only 1% were malignant
-lung cancer cases have to grown to be a national epidemic

The formation of lung cancer
-normal cell growth and division disturbed
-tumor formed

Causes of Lung Cancer
1. Smoking
2. Passive smoking
3. Radon
4. Air polluton
Causes of Lung Cancer
1. Smoking
- tobacco contains more than 70 different cancer
causing chemicals

- responsible for more than 90% lung cancer cases

- the most prevantable cause of death

2. Passive smoking
Causes of Lung Cancer
- irritates air passages and damages heart

- no proper lung growth

Causes of Lung Cancer
3. Radon
- can even be found in households

- can heavily damage the lungs
Causes of Lung Cancer
4. Air Pollution
- a complex mixture of numerous damaging substances

- due to extreme small size, can penetrate to deepest place of the respiratory tract

- 1350 lives are lost in Macedonia due to the air pollution, the majority of the cases being lung cancer

Stages of Lung Cancer
- refers to the range to which the tumor has spread

- involves the estimation of a tumor size and the presence or absence of metastases
Stages of Lung Cancer
Non-small cell lung cancer stages:
Stage I :
- cancer is enclosed to the lung
Stage II and III :
- cancer enclosed to the lung and probably the lymph nodes
Stage IV :
- the cancer has metastasized
Stages of Lung Cancer
Small cell lung cancer stages
Limited stage:
- cancer is enclosed to the lung and lymph nodes
Extensive stage:
- cancer has metastasized
Symptoms of Lung Cancer
1. Cough
3. Pain
4. Voice
5. Weight drop
6. Headache
2. Changes in breathing
Methods of treatment
1. Surgery
to remove the tumor and the lymph nodes located near the tumor in the chest
5 types of surgery:
1. Lobectomy
2. A wedge
3. Segmentectomy
4. Pneumonectomy
5. Radiofrequency ablation
Methods of Treatment
2. Adjuvant therapy
to get rid of any cancer cells that might still be in the body and prevents cancer from returning
Includes 3 other methods:
1. Radiation therapy

2. Chemotherapy
3. Targeted therapy
Methods of Treatment
3. Anti-angiogenesis therapy
to stop the creation of new blood vessels
(stops angiogenesis)
Methods of Treatment
Non-small cell lung cancer treatment
Stage I and II :
-surgery first treatment, radiation is also an option
Stage III :
-combination of chemotherapy and radiation therapy
Stage IV :
-only chemotherapy is helpful
but cannot make cancer disappear completely
Methods of Treatment
Small cell lung cancer treatment
Limited stage :
Extensive stage :
-chemotherapy combined with radiation
-chemotherapy taken for the first three months
Thank you

-statistics show that the consumption of tobacco throughout the world, including Macedonia has decreased
-a challenging cancer to treat, but 15% of the patients survive

Where did I get the idea?
- grandmother diagnosed with lung cancer

- how could Tetovo's air cause lung cancer?

I was very inquisitive about knowing more about the complex system we simply call "human"
and a human can only breathe the oxygen he needs through the respiratory pathways, more significantly-the lungs
Types of Lung Tumor and Lung Cancer
Tumors can be:
Types of Lung Tumor and Lung Cancer
The two main types of Lung Cancer:
Non-small cell lung cancer
Small cell lung cancer
-most evident kind
-less aggressive
-does not spread too fast
-85%-90% of all cases

has further 3 subtypes
-more dangerous
-spreads very rapidly
-difficult to be located
after it has spread
-10%-15% of all cases
Types of Lung Tumor and Lung Cancer
Non-small cell lung cancer's subtypes
1. Squamous cell carcinoma
-starts in the squamous cells
-almost always a cause of smoking
-25%-30% of lung cancers the case
Types of Lung Tumor and Lung Cancer
Non-small cell lung cancer's subtypes
2. Adenocarcinoma
-starts in the outercompartments of the
-grows slower
-40% of all cancer cases

Non-small cell lung cancer's subtypes
Types of Lung Tumor and Lung Cancer
3. Large cell Carcinoma
-can start in any part of the lung
-builds and spreads quickly
-10%-15% of all cancer cases
Final Project
Full transcript