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Lung Cancer

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blerta ceka

on 16 April 2015

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Transcript of Lung Cancer

Lung Cancer
Matura Presentation
Student: Blerta Ceka
Mentor: Nora Limani
Class 4a
Spring 2015
The Human Lungs
The lungs' functional system
Lung Cancer Under the Microscope
The history of Lung cancer
-identified as a disease in mid 1700's
-in first 200 sightings, only 1% were malignant
-lung cancer cases have to grown to be a national epidemic

The formation of lung cancer
-normal cell growth and division disturbed
-tumor formed


Causes of Lung Cancer
1. Smoking
2. Passive smoking
3. Radon
4. Air polluton
Causes of Lung Cancer
1. Smoking
- tobacco contains more than 70 different cancer
causing chemicals

- responsible for more than 90% lung cancer cases

- the most prevantable cause of death


2. Passive smoking
Causes of Lung Cancer
- irritates air passages and damages heart

- no proper lung growth

Causes of Lung Cancer
3. Radon
- can even be found in households

- can heavily damage the lungs
Causes of Lung Cancer
4. Air Pollution
- a complex mixture of numerous damaging substances

- due to extreme small size, can penetrate to deepest place of the respiratory tract

- 1350 lives are lost in Macedonia due to the air pollution, the majority of the cases being lung cancer


Stages of Lung Cancer
- refers to the range to which the tumor has spread

- involves the estimation of a tumor size and the presence or absence of metastases
Stages of Lung Cancer
Non-small cell lung cancer stages:
Stage I :
- cancer is enclosed to the lung
Stage II and III :
- cancer enclosed to the lung and probably the lymph nodes
Stage IV :
- the cancer has metastasized
Stages of Lung Cancer
Small cell lung cancer stages
Limited stage:
- cancer is enclosed to the lung and lymph nodes
Extensive stage:
- cancer has metastasized
Symptoms of Lung Cancer
1. Cough
3. Pain
4. Voice
5. Weight drop
6. Headache
2. Changes in breathing
Methods of treatment
1. Surgery
Goal:
to remove the tumor and the lymph nodes located near the tumor in the chest
5 types of surgery:
1. Lobectomy
2. A wedge
3. Segmentectomy
4. Pneumonectomy
5. Radiofrequency ablation
Methods of Treatment
2. Adjuvant therapy
Goal:
to get rid of any cancer cells that might still be in the body and prevents cancer from returning
Includes 3 other methods:
1. Radiation therapy

2. Chemotherapy
3. Targeted therapy
Methods of Treatment
3. Anti-angiogenesis therapy
Goal:
to stop the creation of new blood vessels
(stops angiogenesis)
Methods of Treatment
Non-small cell lung cancer treatment
Stage I and II :
-surgery first treatment, radiation is also an option
Stage III :
-combination of chemotherapy and radiation therapy
Stage IV :
-only chemotherapy is helpful
but cannot make cancer disappear completely
Methods of Treatment
Small cell lung cancer treatment
Limited stage :
Extensive stage :
-chemotherapy combined with radiation
-chemotherapy taken for the first three months
Thank you
Conclusion

-statistics show that the consumption of tobacco throughout the world, including Macedonia has decreased
-a challenging cancer to treat, but 15% of the patients survive
-awareness!

Where did I get the idea?
- grandmother diagnosed with lung cancer

- how could Tetovo's air cause lung cancer?

I was very inquisitive about knowing more about the complex system we simply call "human"
and a human can only breathe the oxygen he needs through the respiratory pathways, more significantly-the lungs
Types of Lung Tumor and Lung Cancer
Tumors can be:
-benign
-malignant
Types of Lung Tumor and Lung Cancer
The two main types of Lung Cancer:
Non-small cell lung cancer
Small cell lung cancer
-most evident kind
-less aggressive
-does not spread too fast
-85%-90% of all cases

has further 3 subtypes
-more dangerous
-spreads very rapidly
-difficult to be located
after it has spread
-10%-15% of all cases
Types of Lung Tumor and Lung Cancer
Non-small cell lung cancer's subtypes
1. Squamous cell carcinoma
-starts in the squamous cells
-almost always a cause of smoking
-25%-30% of lung cancers the case
Types of Lung Tumor and Lung Cancer
Non-small cell lung cancer's subtypes
2. Adenocarcinoma
-starts in the outercompartments of the
lungs
-grows slower
-40% of all cancer cases

Non-small cell lung cancer's subtypes
Types of Lung Tumor and Lung Cancer
3. Large cell Carcinoma
-can start in any part of the lung
-builds and spreads quickly
-10%-15% of all cancer cases
Final Project
Full transcript