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Pathogens & Disease

Chapter 21
by

Jordan Marmara

on 1 December 2014

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Transcript of Pathogens & Disease

Pathogens & Disease
Two Main Kingdoms
Eubacteria
- live in normal conditions
Three Main Types
Based On Their Shapes:
Viruses
Four Main Shapes
Crystals
General Characteristics
Nonliving
particle made of genetic material
covered in a protein coat.
Bacteria
Archaebacteria
- live in abnormal conditions
(Salty, hot/cold, acidic environments.
Bacilli - Rod Shaped
Cocci- Sphere Shaped
Spirilla- Spiral Shaped
General Characteristics
Prokaryotes: They have no nucleus.
Unicellular: They are made of 1 cell.
Asexual Reproduction (Binary Fission)
They are living things
How Binary Fission Works:
-A bacteria splits through mitosis, making an identical copy of itself.
-This process means that the amount of bacteria double every step, allowing for fast reproduction.
Can exchange DNA to evolve & adapt to
become resistant to antibiotics.
Treatments for Bacteria
Antibiotics: work by killing bacteria once they have entered your body.
A vaccine can be used to give your body
immunity against certain strains of bacteria.
Using antibiotics too much can make
bacteria resistant to them, which can
make the antibiotics useless over time.
Spheres
Cylinder
Spacecraft
Invade host cells and use the cell's organelles
to create more copies of itself, eventually this
kills the host cell.
Effects of Viruses
Among the most widespread of illnesses in humans.
Viruses can be spread rapidly from direct contact, through water, air or vectors depending on the virus.
Some viruses can be prevented by
getting vaccinated against it.
Fungi
Characteristics
Eukaryotes
Multicellular
Heterotrophs
Sexual (using spores) & Asexual reproduction
Types of Fungi
Threadlike (Ex: Bread Mold)
Sac Fungi (Yeast & Morels)
Club Fungi (Common Umbrella)
Imperfect Fungi (Athlete's Foot)
Effects of Fungi
Help decompose materials
Attack tissues causing disease
Can attack food sources
Can cause allergies
Parasites
Examples of Diseases
Malaria
Scabies
More Examples
Leeches
Lice
Tapeworm
Pathogens:
A living or nonliving substance that can cause a disease or illness.

The living substances are sometimes called
germs
,
microorganisms
, or
microbe
.
Diseases Caused
Strep Throat: Streptococcus
Food Poisoning: Escherichia coli (E. Coli)
Lyme Disease: Borrelia burgdorferi
Transmitted by sharing body fluids.
Transmitted by eating undercooked meat.
Transmitted by ticks.
CENSORED
Some bacteria, like those that live in our
disgestive system are actually good for us!
Diseases Caused
Chicken Pox: Varicella-zoster (VZV)
Measles (MeV)
Flu (Influzenza...H#N#)
H5N1: Avian (Bird) Flu
H1N1: Swine Flu
Ebola (EBOV/EVD)
Polio (Poliovirus)
Antibiotics
WON'T
work against Viruses; Antiviral drugs will.
Reproduce easily in DARK and MOIST environments.
General Characteristics
Feed on other individuals (their host)
Live on, or in, their host's
body
Typically have a specialized
characteristic (Tapeworm)
Black Death (Plague): Yersinia pestis
Transmitted by Fleas on Rats
Transmitting Disease
Vectors
are typically animals that transmit disease from one creature to another.
Ex: Mosquitoes, Mice, Mites, etc.
Carriers
are individuals who are
infected with a disease, however
they present no symptoms. This
spreads disease more easily.
Preventing Disease
V
accines
- typically given to a person
BEFORE
they are infected to pre
V
ent illness. Can work for
V
iruses as well as bacteria.
Antibiotics
- typically given to a
person
AFTER
they are infected
to prevent the bacteria, parasite
or fungus (antifungual) from
replicating and infecting the
person further.
DOES NOT
work on
viruses
.

When organisms aren't affected by antibiotics this is called antibiotic resistance. This is caused by overuse of antibiotics or not finishing a dose of antibiotics.
Smallpox
Wash your hands!
...but the most effective way
to prevent disease from spreading...
Full transcript