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Sports Medicine!

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by

Emily Mattick

on 9 November 2012

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Transcript of Sports Medicine!

HSC OPTION 3 SPORTS MEDICINE How does SPORTS MEDICINE address the needs of specific athletes? What role do preventative actions play in enhancing the well-being of the athlete? Focus QUESTION 3: How is injury rehabilitation managed? focus QUESTION 4: focus QUESTION 2: focus QUESTION 1: How are sports injuries classified and managed Direct injury: This is an injury caused by an external agent, such as being hit by a softball or running into a hurdle. The external agent may also be another player or piece of equipment. Ways to Classify sports injuries: - Direct
- Indirect
- Overuse
- Soft Tissue
-Hard Tissue Indirect Injury: Injury caused by an intrinsic force/ a force inside the body Overuse Injury Overuse injuries are caused by excessive use and strain on a body part (bone, ligament or other soft tissue) Hard Tissue Injuries Damage to bones/teeth e.g. fracture Soft Tissue Injuries damage to muscles, tendons, ligaments, cartilage. skin, blood vessels, organs, nerves Sprain stretching/tearing of a ligament TEARS Strain stretching/tearing of a muscle or tendon Contusion A bruise! Contusions vary in intensity - some are superficial, remaining close to the skin. However others penetrate deeply causing the bone to bruise Skin Abrasions Abrasions may occur in games like netball or tennis, where a player may fall on a dry hard surface. It is a graze!

Injury causes pain and shallow bleeding as a result of the skin being scraped. Skinned area may be embedded with dirt and other foreign materials. Treatment: gentle cleansing and sterilisation of the wound to prevent infection. Lacerations A laceration is a wound where the flesh has incurred an irregular tear. To treat a laceration, the area needs to be thoroughly cleansed with antiseptic soap, dried and a sterile gauze pad applied. Pressure may need to be applied to prevent bleeding Blisters Blisters are caused by a collection of fluid below or within the epidermal layer of the skin.

They may be caused by:
- wearing or using new equipment
- using equipment for a long time
- an activity that requires sudden changes of direction causing friction Inflammatory Response - Inflammatory response: Self healing process of soft tissue injuries.

Phase 1:
the inflammatory phase: Pain, redness, swelling, loss of function and mobility Phase 2:
Repair and regenerative stage: (3 days – 6 weeks), formation of new fibres, production of scar tissue Phase 3:
The remodeling phase: (6 weeks onwards). This phase is characterised by an increased production of scar tissue.
If an athlete exercises too early they risk potential further damage, too late and there is increased scar tissue resulting in lack of flexibility, mobility and strength 1 2 3 Treating Soft Tissue Injuries

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assage Fractures There are three main classifications of fractures- simple (closed), compound (open) and complicated (where the bone damages a major nerve, organ or blood vessel). Dislocations Dislocations are the displacement of a bone at a joint. Managing Hard Tissue Injuries STOP!

IMMOBILISE

Referral! Managing Skin Injuries Danger,
Bleeding,
Assessment,
Cleansing
Antiseptic
Dressings
Referral BLISTERS DON't apply pressure as there is already pressure in the wound
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Pierce with a STERILE needle, drain fluids,

DO NOT remove skin,

DO apply a dressing that isn’t too bulky. T

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ctive movement

assive movement

kills test ASSESSING THE INJURY Young People - Medical Condition:

(Asthma, Diabetes, Epilepsy)

- Overuse Injuries

- Thermoregulation

- Appropriateness of resistance training ASTHMA ASTHMA is a condition characterised by breathing difficulty where there is a reduction in the width of the airways leading to the lungs, resulting in less air being available to them.

Children and young athletes who suffer from asthma have different triggers.

It is important to know what triggers an individual's asthma attack to ensure appropriate preventative measures can be put in place.

Children who are diagnosed with asthma should have an up to date asthma management plan.

Anyone associated with training a child with asthma should be aware of the child's personal management plan in case of an attack. Diabetes Diabetes is a disease in which the body does not produce or properly use insulin

Children and young athletes who suffer from Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes have special considerations that need to be taken into account when exercising.

They need to regulate their blood glucose (or sugar) levels so they can participate effectively.

Each child will have a management plan to control low and high blood glucose levels. It is important that a coach or trainer knows the management plan for each child and allows for this in training, e.g. allowing breaks for food or rest. Epilepsy Epilepsy is a disruption to brain function causing a brief alteration to the level of consciousness and resulting in seizures or fits.

Children and young athletes who are diagnosed with epilepsy and use medication to control seizures can participate in most physical activities.
A coach or trainer should be aware of any child they are training who has epilepsy. They have a responsibility to implement appropriate management measures which have been recommended by their medical practitioner and parent/carer.

If a seizure does occur during training or play, it is important to:
remove any surrounding dangers, such as other players, by stopping play
maintain privacy where possible
place the child in the recovery position and protect from danger
reassure the child after the seizure
call an ambulance if the seizure lasts longer than five minutes. Otherwise, the child's recommended management plan should be followed. http://hsc.csu.edu.au/pdhpe/options/medicine/4035/3-2/op3_2_1.htm Find Links for more information at: Overuse Injuries Overuse injuries occur because of repeated use of a part of the body.

Children and young athletes are susceptible to overuse injury because of different growth rates in bone and soft tissue

The most common causes:
- High training volume, intensity and frequency
- Inadequate warm up
- Poor fitness
-Unsuitable equipment Thermoregulation When exercising in the heat, children usually have a higher core temperature than adults.

This is due to a number of factors including sweating less and a reduced sweat mechanism.

They need regular breaks (preferably in the shade), regular sips of water and appropriate clothing.

In contrast, in colder temperatures children can be more susceptible to the cold. They need appropriate clothing and exercise to keep warm. Appropriateness of Resistance Training Depending on the needs of the young athlete, resistance training may be an appropriate form of training.
Young athletes should focus on skills and technique when using resistance training.

For example, young athletes should start with body weight resistance exercises, such as push ups and after correct technique has been developed and an appropriate age reached, they can use light resistance with high repetitions.

Avoid strength specialising e.g. don't focus on a specific muscle group - this can lead to imbalances leading to injury Physical Preparation: - Pre-screening

- Skill and technique

- Physical Fitness

- Warm up, stretching, cool down Sports Policy and the Sports Environment Rules of Sports and Activities Modified rules for children Matching opponents Use of protective equipment Safe grounds, equipment and facilities Rules of Sports and Activities The rules of a sport assist the flow of play, and protect the participants from injury.

Rules are enforced on the field by the referee, and should be enforced both on and off the field by coaches, players and spectators to promote safety within the game.

What are some examples from your sport of rules or policies that are enforced to promote the well being of the athlete? Modified Rules for Children Modification of rules in sport for children is essential to encourage children to take part and continue in the activity.

Children should not be seen as little adults, capable of using adult equipment on adult sized fields. Due to their size and limited capabilities, children have specific needs in terms of court size, equipment, rules and duration of sport.

Both the rules and the environment should promote safety, enjoyment and participation to ensure students continue to participate in the sport. Matching Opponents: the great debate You are part of the board for the local junior rugby competition.

Recently there has been discussion around organising the competition based on the size of the athlete rather than the age.

In two teams, debate whether this is a good idea or not.

Each team should come up with three points to support their argument, and each point should be justified. Protective Equipment Many sports require participants to wear protective equipment in order to reduce injuries.

In order for the protective gear to be effective, it needs to be:
- correctly fitted
- the correct size for the athlete
- in good condition Safe grounds, Equipment and Facilities: What needs to be considered?

- Grounds:

- Equipment:

- Facilities:

How do sports policies address these things? Are they effective in doing so? Environmental Considerations - Temperature Regulation

- Climatic Conditions

- Guidelines for Fluid Intake

- Acclimatisation Temperature Regulation: Controlling the body's core temperature is important for peak performance in sport and in the prevention of illness. The human body can only withstand slight variances in its normal core temperature of 37 degrees Celcius.

A lower core body temperature increases the risk of hypothermia and a higher core body temperature increases the risk of hyperthermia. What role do the 4 methods of temperature regulation play in sport? Climatic Conditions temperature,
humidity,
wind,
rain,
altitude,
pollution Using your built scenario: identify and analyse the impact of the climatic conditions on the participation of your athlete Build a scenario!! Appropriate hydration is one of the main issues regarding temperature regulation and maintaining athletic performance.

Fluid replacement before, during and after exercise is extremely important as even a small loss of fluid can affect an athlete's performance. Fluid Intake Requirements http://www.powerade.com.au/Utilities/HydrationCalculator.html http://www.smartplay.com.au/ImageLibraryAssets/Resources/VIC/general-sports-safety-2008-drink-up-brochure-cald-communities-vic.pdf Acclimatisation involves preparing the body to perform in the climatic conditions that will be experienced during an event, e.g. heat, altitude, cold.

It is an important factor in preparing for any event and contributes to preventing injury. Acclimatisation! Using your scenario from before, discuss how you would prepare your athlete to compete or train in that environment. What would you need to consider? The effect of Hot and humid days: Athletes who are exercising in hot and humid conditions are at much greater risk of heat exhaustion and heat stroke.

This is even more important for athletes who wear heavy clothing or equipment, for example, a hockey goal keeper.

It is difficult for evaporation to occur as the air is already saturated with water. Evaporation can only occur in relation to how much skin is exposed, so reduce clothing if possible. On cold and windy days heat loss is greater, as the air temperature is much less than body temperature.

Bike riders and skiers lose even more heat because of the increased breeze generated as they ride.

These conditions make an athlete more susceptible to hypothermia! The effects of cold, windy conditions Rain can lead to a greater risk of hypothermia due to wet clothing.

It also has an obvious effect on safety in terms of stability and non slip surfaces.

The High moisture content in the air also affects evaporation if rain occurs in a tropical environment. The effect of Rain At higher altitudes, the oxygen in their air exists at a much lower pressure. This means there is less oxygen transported to the lungs of athletes and their aerobic capacity is affected.

High altitudes also lead to altitude sickness, whereby athletes experience difficulty eating and sleeping, and experiece nausea and fatigue. The effect of different altitudes Pollution affects athletes much more than the general population due to their high respiratory rate when exercising.

Exposure to high levels of pollution has been shown to lead to coughs, chest pain, difficulty breathing, headaches and a decrease in lung capacity.

Pollution obviously has an even worse effect on athletes with respiratory conditions such as asthma. The effect of pollution Taping and Bandaging Preventative taping

Taping for isolation of injury

Bandaging for immediate treatment of injury. Preventative Taping Preventative taping has been found to reduce severity of injury to the ligament, lower the recurrence of injury and give additional support while making certain movements.

Taping should never replace a strengthening program. Most athletes use preventative taping to prevent re-injury. They may feel that the joint is weaker than before the injury and it needs extra support.

Athletes who participate in sports which place extreme pressure on joints, such as gymnastics or weightlifting, will often use preventative taping even if they have not suffered from a previous injury. Taping for Isolation When an injury has occurred, taping is useful to limit the movement of the muscles and joints involved. Limiting movement prevents further damage to the area, restricts swelling and eases pain. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HK4b7EiYMsA&feature=related Bandaging for Immediate treatment of an injury Bandaging is more commonly used for the treatment of soft tissue injuries.

Bandaging can help reduce swelling, support a joint or muscle and restrict movement.

Generally, elastic bandages or slings are used.

To be effective, the correct technique and firmness need to be applied to the injured area. Returning to play:
- indicators of readiness for return to play (pain free, degree of mobility)

- monitoring progress (pre-test and post-test)

- psychological readiness

- specific warm-up procedures

- return to play policies and procedures

- ethical considerations, eg pressure toparticipate, use of painkillers. Return to Play Policies and Procedures Individual sports will have their own specific return to play policies and procedures. The athlete's wellbeing should be central to any return to play policy. Contact sports usually have a policy about returning to play after a head injury.

Ethical Considerations eg pressure to participate, use of pain killers
Along with the physical and psychological recovery from injury, an athlete will often feel other pressures to return to play, e.g. a fear of letting the team down if they don't participate, pressure from sponsors and coaches in deciding events/games and financial pressures.

If an athlete returns to play too early after an injury, they risk long term injury which can be season or career threatening.

Using painkillers also increases the likelihood of further damage to an existing injury due to the painkiller masking the body's natural response.

http://www.abc.net.au/4corners/stories/2012/05/10/3499950.htm Look at the sports policy about concussion and critically analyse it
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