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Neurobioetica e Postumanismo 2018
Transcript of Neurobioetica e Postumanismo 2018
THE HUMAN BRAIN PROJECT
THE BRAIN INITIATIVE
2014: anno europeo del cervello
2015: HANDBOOK OF NEUROETHICS
3. ALCUNE DOMANDE ???
Che cos’è il
Qual’è il ruolo che svolge nell’
È possibile organizzare le
alla luce dei progressi neuroscientifici?...
” qualcosa di più del mio proprio
che ci rende propriamente
: UNA STORIA LUNGA QUANTO L'ESSERE UMANO
alcmeone di crotone
e la "teoria cerebro-centrica" (
origine remota della dbs
Andreas Vesalius 1516-1564
la conoscenza dell'anatomia
di una struttura ci conduce a comprendere meglio la sua fisiologia
Cerebri Anatome (1664)
Gall vs Flourens
“localizzazionisti” vs “antilocalizzazionisti”
Ramón y Cajal
: squizofrenia e clorpromacina (
LE PRIME SOCIETà SCIENTIFICHE RIGUARDANTI IL CERVELLO UMANO:
José Delgado: neuro-electro-stimOLAZZIONE (
” Neurologic Clinics, R. E. Cranford
: Patricia S. Churchland
1993: A. A. Pontius
: Neuroethics: mapping the fiel - DANA Foundation
parte della bioetica
che si interessa di
stabilire ciò che è lecito, cioè, ciò che si può fare
, rispetto alla terapia e al miglioramento delle funzioni cerebrali, così come si interessa di valutare le diverse forme di interventi e manipolazioni, spesso preoccupanti, compiuti sul
alla luce del
. Neuroethics with a Human Face
INDUZIONE DI UN
PEDOFILO compulsivo (adquired pedophilia) AD OPERA DI UN
Andrew B. Schwartz
Nature 442, 164-171 (13 July 2006):
Neuronal ensemble control of prosthetic devices by a human with tetraplegia
has a neurobiological underpinning, the mind is not reducible to the
There is much
to the human mind and human behavior than the mobilization of distinct sets of nerve cells…
consists of qualitatively new properties not exhibited by physical properties of the
. These include the property of representing the body anD events from the external environment to the brain and making them meaningful to us...
It is also questionable whether the first-person phenomenological feel of subjective experience can be entirely captured by third-person descriptions of brain function. The human mind expresses itself through a chain of molecular events and processes. But the mind is more than just a function of molecules.”
...emerge una preoccupazione di fondo...
Oggigiorno, centinaia di regioni lungo il
a disordini riguardanti il
è il convitato di qualunque umanesimo
nEUROMANIA VS NEUROFOBIA
riflessione sistematica ed informata
della stessa neuroscienza”, includendone, oltre alla neuroscienza, “le correlative scienze della mente (la psicologia in tutte le sue molteplici forme, la psichiatria, l’intelligenza artificiale e così via), allo
di capire i loro risvolti per l’
e i pericoli e le prospettive delle loro applicazioni”
a new and neglected area of ethical concern -
neuroethics as a
another hybrid word
is finding its way into current discussions:
...other increasingly fashionable hybrid word, '
...it is in response to these prospects that the term '
' has been invented, and it is to
itself that finally i turn...
...a new term has appeared in the
Recent advances in the brain sciences have dramatically improved our understanding of brain function. As we find out more and more about
makes us tick, we must
stop and consider the ethical implications of this new found knowledge
Will having a new biology of the brain through imaging make us less responsible for our behavior and lose our free will? Should certain brain scan studies be disallowed on the basis of moral grounds? Why is the media so interested in reporting results of brain imaging studies? What ethical lessons from the past can best inform the future of brain imaging?
and many more are tackled by a distinguished group of contributors to this,
the first-ever volume on neuroethics
. The wide range of disciplinary backgrounds that the authors represent, from neuroscience, bioethics and philosophy, to law, social and health care policy, education, religion and film, allow for profoundly insightful and provocative answers to these questions, and open up the door to a host of new ones. The contributions highlight the timeliness of modern neuroethics today, and assure the longevity and importance of neuroethics for generations to come.
The past two decades have seen unparalleled developments in our knowledge of the
. However, these advances have forced us to confront head-on some significant
ethical issues regarding our application of this information in the real world
—whether using brain images to establish guilt within a court of law, or developing drugs to enhance cognition. Historically, any consideration of the ethical, legal, and social implications of emerging technologies in science and medicine has lagged behind the discovery of the technology itself. These delays have caused problems in the acceptability and potential applications of biomedical advances and posed significant problems for the scientific community and the public alike—for example in the case of genetic screening and human cloning. The
proactively anticipate ethical, legal, and social issues at the intersection of neuroscience and ethics, raising questions about what the brain tells us about ourselves, whether the information is what people want or ought to know, and how best to communicate it
specifico ambito d'indagine
ciò che apprendiamo su noi stessi e sul nostro "funzionamento"
, grazie principalmente (ma non esclusivamente) alle
un nuovo genere di antropologia
fra le scoperte delle
e i sistemi dei
con psicologia, filosofia, antropologia, etica normativa, scienze giuridiche e sociali, economia...
una disciplina che si prefigge di
leggere l'uomo, nella sua individualità e globalità, alla luce della neurobiologia
documentata delle neuroscienze...
la centralità delle
(1) the study of
neurological bases of
moral cognition, sense and action
field of study
that addresses the moral issues that arise in and from neuroscientific research and the clinical practices
social effects/implications that evolve from these investigations
between neurological research/clinical practices and other ethically relevant areas of biomedical sciences (e.g. the effects/implications of genetic research on neurological care; use of nanotechnology in neurological research and practice, etc.)
Contemporary neuroethics necessitates consideration and appreciation of an
underlying natural philosophy
, that grounds neuroscience (and its constituent disciplines) and the humanities. Toward this, a number of operational definitions are introductory to an explanation of neuroethics...
: 1: the inherent character or basic constitution of a person or thing 2: a controlling force in the universe or the sum of such forces in an individual 3: a kind or class usually distinguished by fundamental or essential characteristics
: 1: a discipline comprising as its tasks: metaphysics, logic, epistemology, ethics, engaged in study or pursuit of field/practice 2: a search for a general understanding by chiefly speculative rather than observational means
: an area of knowledge that is an object of study, particularly as concerning general laws; usually as obtained through specific rational methods
: a system of beliefs, attitudes and practices reflective of a metaphysical appreciation engaged in moral decision making; a ‘binding’ set of beliefs and faith in such beliefs
: pertaining to or derived from the structure, function (or concept) of nerves, and/or nervous systems, such as brains.
From this, we can consider
viable definitions of "
1) Inquiry and investigation into the
of moral thought, intention and behavior
2) Inquiry and investigation into the moral, ethical and policy-related issues arising in, and from neuroscientific research and its clinical applications
Both of these definitions involve
a solid foundation of the facts of neural function
, the realities of science, medical practice, and social impact, and from this
(a.) recognize the exigencies and issues that are inherent and arise, (b.) the moral obligations and responsibilities involved with these issues, and (c.) how various ethical systems may be utilized to address and resolve these issues, questions and problems. This allows us to construct a
normative and applied neuroethics
"...from the ground up", as schematically illustrated below.
1. nEUROSCIENZA VS FILOSOFIA? 1.1. STRATA
1.2. la risposta
2. neuromania vs neurofobia
chi ha paura del cervello?
Ralph f. jozefowicz
3. Tripartizione tra “
neuro-scettici e neuro-critici”
1.2. neurogenetica - neurogenomica
grande famiglia delle discipline biomediche afferenti alla neurologia, che si propongono di studiare il funzionamento del sistema nervoso; in particolare, del cervello. Accanto alle storiche specializzazioni (neurologia, neurochirurgia, psichiatria, psicologia), oggi vanno acquisendo sempre maggiore importanza nuove discipline – quali la neurogenetica, la neurobiologia, il cosiddetto neuroimaging – che stanno aprendo nuovi scenari di studio e ricerca neppure immaginabili solo pochi anni fa. le neuroscienze studiano lo
del sistema nervoso
statuto epistemologico delle neuroscienze
UNA NARRATIVA STORICA
1.2. Modello “cervello trino”
1952 Paul D. MacLean
bottom-up / top-down
2690-2610 a.c. !!!
Leonardo da Vinci
- controllo della muscolatura da parte del midollo spinale
- presenza di nervi pari nelle strutture craniali
- controllo della voce da parte del
stesso e il fatto che il cervello controllasse i quattro umori che catalizzavano il funzionamento del nostro corpo e della nostra personalità somatica e psichica
mansur: primo atlante
anatomico a colori
1874 richard caton
1897 charles s. sherrington
1909 korbinian broadman
1921 otto loewi
1951 wilder penfield
1953 caso h.m.
1995 caso "elliot"
2008 jill price
Eric H. Chudler, Ph.D.
similarly, entire school systems in the USA taught "new math" (also criticized as too soon by mathematician Klein) in kinder garden and began literacy instruction with the "whole word" or "sight reading" method. The latter is actually a picture recognition ability, mediated by a different brain system than alphabetical letter by letter reading. (e.g. children could "read" cat but not "caterpillar").
Millions of USA school children were taught a method for which their brain was not yet mature, contributing to millions of "functionally dyslexics". Neurologically uninformed authorities were experimenting with young children without respecting given anatomical neuro-developmental facts and without consent at those times
It was said pointedly: "Behaviorists resent the central nervous sytem:"
Thus, neurological facts were neglected and at that time, there was no neurology-base warning on potentially dire effects.
Anneliese Alma Pontius
MD, Associate Clinical Professor (ret.), Harvard Medical School
PS Please feel free to ask further questions.
I am glad you asked: when I wrote those articles four decades ago,
reigned in the USA, which
neglected neurological facts
. For example newborns have no anatomical maturity to enable them to walk, and the
neurologically uninformed authors
of "Walking in the newborn" (Zelazo PR et al. (Science 1972;176:314-315) mistook the innate stepping reflex for independent walking, requiring myelination of the pyramidal tract at about 8 months of life) as detailed in my paper (
AA Pontius: Neuro-ethics of 'walking. Perceptual & Motor Skills. 1973;37:235-245
). Zelazo et al. recommended "walking" exercises in newborns, believing that "subtle forces in society "deprives the one-week olds and "erodes the self-rewarding activities underlying the infant's curiosity". My letter to the Science Editor, supported by neuropathology professor
Paul I Yakovlev
was rejected as being "too late", while another author-supporting letter was accepted weeks later by an anthropologist's irrelevant examples.
Neuroethics, in my lexicon, is
a distinct portion of bioethics
, which is the consideration of good and bad consequences in medical practice and biological research. But the specific ethics of the brain science hits home as research on no other organ does. It deals with our consciousness – our sense of self – and as such is central to our being. What distinguishes us from each other beyond our looks? The answer: our personalities and behavior. And these are the characteristics that brain science will soon be able to change in significant ways
Let’s face it: one person’s liver is pretty much like another’s. Our
, by contrast, give
our intelligence, integrity, curiosity, compassion, and – here’s the most mysterious one – conscience. The brain is the organ of individuality
the hastings center
, July 11,2013
Dear Professor Alberto Carrara:
Thanks for your interest in my work on "neuro-ethics", beginning
and for your questions why I wrote "
new and neglected area of ethical concern - neuro-ethics
", what was its context at those times and why I used the term "neglected" this
new field of ethics
Neuroethics 1995–2012. A Bibliometric Analysis of the Guiding Themes of an Emerging Research Field
: Posthumanism, Mind Uploading, Singularity & Cyborgs