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Ch. 2 Languages, Dialects & Varieties

Chapter 2 (Languages, Dialects & Varieties) of An Introduction to Sociolinguistics (Wardhaugh & Fuller 2015).
by

Tiffany Judy

on 20 January 2016

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Transcript of Ch. 2 Languages, Dialects & Varieties

"Language is by its very nature a communal thing; that is, it expresses never the exact thing but a compromise--that which is common to you, me and everybody."

--
T.E. Hulme
Ch. 2 Languages, Dialects & Varieties
Language vs. Dialect
Definitions
Regional dialects
-lects
1. Mutual intelligibility
Criteria to determine status & subsequent issues
Thank you!
Vernacular
Variety
Patois
a native language used in everyday, ordinary life; may have pejorative connotations for non-linguists
according to the French, a language with no written form
a specific set of patterned human speech that can be uniquely associated with some language-external factor (e.g. a geographical region or a social class)
What is the difference?
Is the distinction important?
Are these terms difficult to define? Why?
2. Social identity
3. Standardization
Social dialects
Styles, registers and genres
If speakers understand each other, dialects of same language.
What issues arise from using this criteria?
If speakers share the same/a similar sociopolitical identity, dialects of same language.
If codified in some way, language.
Change is the enemy of standardization, but the lifeblood of language!
Dialect continuum
Dialect geography
Isogloss
Dialect boundary
a variety that can be defined geographically
a situation in which regional dialects differ only slightly from one another in close proximity, but in which the differences increase as distance increases
the mapping of the geographical distribution of distinctive linguistic features
http://www.jotamartin.byethost33.com/alpi_ceseo_e.php
http://www.businessinsider.com/22-maps-that-show-the-deepest-linguistic-conflicts-in-america-2013-6?op=1
http://us.english.uga.edu/cgi-bin/lapsite.fcgi/
http://robertspage.com/dialects.html
a map that shows the boundary between a geographical region evidencing a linguistic feature and another region that doesn't
http://us.english.uga.edu/cgi-bin/lapsite.fcgi/
http://robertspage.com/dialects.html
the boundary that results when more than one isogloss coincides
a variety that can be defined in social terms such as class, religion and ethnicity
What examples of social dialects defined by class, religion and ethnicity were given in the book?
What is hypercorrection and why might speakers hypercorrect?
Styles depend on the circumstance and range in formality.
Registers, often referred to as jargons, are related to a profession or a social group.
What opinions do we have about languages, dialects, styles, registers and genres?
Genre, is similar to register, but is more related to the type of text.
What linguistic clues do we employ to make these judgments?
How does this reflect on our linguistic capacity as humans?
Under this definition, about half the world's languages are not
languages
but rather
patois
. What consequences does this have?
What does this mean for immigrants?
Standard English?
Ethnic dialects
a variety within a certain ethnic group learned by exposure; no predisposition
Examples: AAVE, Latino Englishes
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