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Transcript of Reconstruction
Republicans: Johnson too conciliatory
Lincoln's primary concern: win the war, not remake the South
What, exactly, does "Reconstruction" mean?
When was it? 1865-1877--except there's some wartime developments, too!
Who or what was being reconstructed?
Who was doing the reconstructing?
Why do historians refer to "Presidential" and "Radical" Reconstruction?
What dd the war settle, and what remained unsettled at the end of the war?
Who else was involved?
Was Reconstruction a southern event?
Encourage reluctant Unionists
Dec. 1863: Proclamation of Reconstruction & Amnesty
Goal: Shorten the war
Amnesty: pledge loyalty NOW and in FUTURE
Return of confiscated property EXCEPT slaves
Goal: loyalty oath from 10% of 1860 voters; then begin process of gaining readmittance to the Union
Congress enters the fray:
July 1864, Wade-Davis Bill
ease states back into a normal relationship with the Union
Seceded states were conquered territories under
reject 10% plan;
require oaths from simple majority of white male population;
those voters can then elect delegates to a constitutional convention
Loyalty oath should include PAST
New state constitutions: abolish slavery, repudiate CSA debt, disenfranchise CSA military/political leaders
Wade-Davis Bill Fails by Lincoln's pocket veto
Takes oath of office 4/15
Implements his plan BEFORE 39th Congress convenes in 12/65
Similar to Lincoln: conciliatory; use presidential proclamations to put policy in place;rely on voluntary oaths to distinguish loyal from disloyal
Dissimilar:postwar, no competing CSA loyalty; believes in limited federal authority; reunification, not revolution (more conciliatory than Lincoln)
May 1865: Johnson's plan
oath of FUTURE loyalty
appoints provisional state governors to:
register voters (along antebellum rules of eligibility)
call constitutional convention that must nullify secession, abolish slavery/ratify 13th Amendment, repudiate war debts;
Hold elections for state and federal office
WAS THIS RESTORATION OR RECONSTRUCTION?
STIMULATE SOUTH'S LOYALTY OR PUNISH PAST BEHAVIOR?
STATUS OF FORMER SLAVES?
RESTORE CONFISCATED LAND
Black Codes, state laws passed in fall 1865 by newly "reconstructed" states, designed to guarantee planters an immobilized, dependent work force
Freedpeople forced to work; vagrancy laws; no free market for labor; children forcibly apprenticed to whites
39th Congress responds:
Dec.'65: refuses to seat southern delegates elected under Presidential Recon.
Dec. '65: Establishes Joint Congressional Committee to investigate southern conditions
Jan. '66: Puts forward 2 new bills
CIVIL RIGHTS BILL
Who were the Republicans of the 39th Congress?
Charles Sumner, MA Sen.
Thaddeus Stevens, PA Rep.
Lyman Trumbull, IL Sen.
1866 Campaign and Elections!
March 1867 Reconstruction Act
1866 Memphis Riot
The Mississippi Plan
1874: Vicksburg attacks on Black Republicans
The Last Gasp: The 1875 Civil Rights Act
1876 Election: Tilden-Hayes Compromise
Retreat From Reconstruction
The Gospel of Prosperity & Railroad Legislation
1870-71, Enforcement Acts
1871: Joint Committee of Congress
April 1871: Ku Klux Klan Act
1871: Martial law in SC
Retreat From Reconstruction
The 15th Amendment—a Moderate Victory
Section. 1. The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.
Section. 2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.
Political Context of 1868 elections
Presidential Race of 1868: Democrat Seymour, Republican Grant
Grant’s Campaign: “Let Us Have Peace”
Election of Grant
Rise of Violence (2 waves)
1868 Turning Point
Progress towards and against Reconstruction
The Conservative Strategy against Reconstruction
Republicans wary of taking final step of readmission
Johnson’s Impeachment Trial March 1868
--7 States readmitted by June 1868
--Role of black state legislators and public office-holders
--Black politicians: characteristics
--Role of Freedwomen
--Centrality of Republican Party
--White Allies: "carpetbaggers," "scalawags"
Votes on 1866 Civil Rights Act
Overturning Johnson's Veto
Evidence? Former Confederates elected to state office fall 1865
To protect all Persons in the United States in their Civil Rights, and furnish the Means of their Vindication
Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled,
That all persons born in the United States and not subject to any foreign power, excluding Indians not taxed, are hereby declared to be citizens of the United States; and such citizens, of every race and color, without regard to any previous condition of slavery or involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted,
shall have the same right, in every State and Territory in the United States, to make and enforce contracts, to sue, be parties, and give evidence, inherit, purchase, lease, sell, hold, and convey real and personal property, and to full and equal benefit of all laws and proceedings for the security of person and property, as is enjoyed by white citizens,
and shall be subject to like punishment, pains, and penalties, and to none other, any law, statute, ordinance, regulation, or custom, to the contrary notwithstanding.
Section 1. All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof,
are citizens of the United States
and of the State wherein they reside.
No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge
the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive
of life, liberty, or property, without
of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.
Section 2. Representatives shall be apportioned among the several States according to their respective numbers, counting the whole number of persons in each State, excluding Indians not taxed.
But when the right to vote
at any election for the choice of electors for President and Vice President of the United States, Representatives in Congress, the Executive and Judicial officers of a State, or the members of the Legislature thereof,
is denied to any of the male inhabitants
of such State, being twenty-one years of age, and citizens of the United States, or in any way abridged, except for participation in rebellion, or other crime,
the basis of representation therein shall be reduced
in the proportion which the number of such male citizens shall bear to the whole number of male citizens twenty-one years of age in such State.
Section 3. No person shall be a Senator or Representative in Congress, or elector of President and Vice President, or hold any office, civil or military, under the United States, or under any State, who, having previously taken an oath, as a member of Congress, or as an officer of the United States, or as a member of any State legislature, or as an executive or judicial officer of any State, to support the Constitution of the United States, shall have
engaged in insurrection or rebellion
against the same, or given aid or comfort to the enemies thereof. But Congress may, by a vote of two-thirds of each House, remove such disability.
Section 4. The validity of
the public debt
of the United States, authorized by law, including debts incurred for payment of pensions and bounties for services in suppressing insurrection or rebellion, shall not be questioned. But neither the United States nor any State shall assume or pay any debt or obligation incurred in aid of insurrection or rebellion against the United States, or any claim for the loss or emancipation of any slave; but all such debts, obligations and claims shall be held illegal and void.
Section 5. The Congress
shall have power to enforce
, by appropriate legislation, the provisions of this article.
Political mobilization of southern Blacks
Black elected officials
Give new Black voters and loyal
whites the opportunity to remake
southern state governments
Provide former slaves with the
economic basis for political freedom
new constitutional conventions
elect new state officials
ratify 14th amendment
apply for readmission to Congress
Also passed in March 1867:
*Tenure of Office Act
*Command of the Army Act
Prepare freedmen for citizenship
The Army & the FB
1867-1877: Reconstructing the South
Union League: Voter registration and education
New Constitutional Conventions
New State Governments
White allies caricatured:
"Carpetbaggers" & "Scalawags"
A new presidential politics: 1868 election of U. S. Grant
Passed by Congress 1869; ratified 1870
Ku Klu Klan
Capitalist expansion in the South:
Reconstruction-era investments in Railroads
1870-1871: Enforcement Acts
The "Mississippi Plan"
1876 Presidential election & 1877 Compromise
Why call it "Redemption"??
Section 1. The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.
Section 2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.
1871 Mississippi KKK
What did new constitutions do?
most progressive in nation
fewer appointed positions, more elected
re-distributed political representation and power
established public schools
established social welfare institutions
redistributed burden of taxation
new stay laws
guaranteed Black civil and political rights
Readmission to representation in Congress
Tennessee – July 24, 1866
Arkansas – June 22, 1868
Florida – June 25, 1868
North Carolina – July 4, 1868
South Carolina – July 9, 1868
Louisiana – July 9, 1868
Alabama – July 13, 1868
Virginia – January 26, 1870
Mississippi – February 23, 1870
Texas – March 30, 1870
Georgia – July 15, 1870
1875 Civil Rights Act
The Rise of Jim Crow
From compromise to peonage
RECONSTRUCTION & THE JUDICIAL BRANCH
1873: Slaughter-house cases narrow 14th Amendment
1876: US vs. Cruikshank undermines Klan Act & Enforcement Acts
1896: Plessy v. Ferguson establishes legality of segregation until 1954
Disenfranchisement--until Voting Rights Act of 1965
Who would have citizenship rights at the end of the war?
How would the Confederate states be readmitted to the Union?
Which branch of government would oversee the process? Who would determine the rules?
How would the southern economy be reorganized? How former slaves and former slave owners become participants in a free labor society?
What would black freedom mean? Would it include citizenship rights? Civil rights? Political power?
BOTH BILLS--CR & FB-- VETOED BY
Make rights veto-proof
New Families, new family politics
Access to Health care: hospitals, physicians, medicines
New labor relations
Shifting away from Wash., D.C.: Former Slaves in the South Define and Defend Freedom
Transform the South through enfranchisement and economic power
Encourage this transformation with the newly-expanded powers of government
Reconstruction as a practical problem rather than an opportunity to impose social revolution on the South
Equal rights before the law the gold standard of change
REPORT BY A FB AGENT
Union League Meeting
Section 2. Representatives shall be apportioned among the several States according to their respective numbers, counting the whole number of persons in each State, excluding Indians not taxed. But when the right to vote at any election for the choice of electors for President and Vice President of the United States, Representatives in Congress, the Executive and Judicial officers of a State, or the members of the Legislature thereof, is denied to any of the male inhabitants of such State, being twenty-one years of age, and citizens of the United States, or in any way abridged, except for participation in rebellion, or other crime, the basis of representation therein shall be reduced in the proportion which the number of such MALE CITIZENS shall bear to the whole number of MALE CITIZENS
twenty-one years of age in such State.
"A White Man's Government": Collusion between Wall Street, Irish Democrats, and the Klan
"REDEMPTION": The path to Democratic control
Silhouetted corpse of African American Allen Brooks hanging from Elk's Arch, surrounded by spectators. March 3, 1910. Dallas, Texas
Duluth, MN 1920
UNSETTLED & UNSETTLING:
Combating efforts to re-enslave children
Claiming right to legal marriage
Colored Conventions Project
NOTE: Northern states were STILL "unreconstructed":
by 1868 black men could not vote in 11 of 21 northern states or any of the 5 border states
1865-66, CT, MN, & WI voters reject black enfranchisement
Republican leaders in 6 additional states block the issue from being voted on
1867: OH, MN, KS deny black vote
1868: MICH & NY deny black vote
Northern whites use legal and extra- legal means to prevent black voting (violence, blocking payment of taxes necessary to vote, arresting federal marshals interfering with fraud at the polls)
Once enfranchised, northern Republicans exclude African Americans from party nominations & elected office
Fall 1867 politics of Reconstruction
Army registers +700,000 black voters
+600,000 new white voters
10-15% white voters disfranchised
25-30% eligible whites fail to register
70-90% eligible black voters participate
267 of +1000 convention delegates African Americans; majority in SC & LA
Involuntary Child Indentureship
"Vagrancy" laws to prevent economic independence or interracial organizing
PA's Democratic Party Campaigns on Northern Racism
The Black Republican [New Orleans, LA], 4/22/65
Attacks on freedpeople's homes
Radical Reconstruction: Accomplishments, Losses