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Responsive Robotic Architecture

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engy hassouna

on 1 November 2014

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Transcript of Responsive Robotic Architecture

Responsive
obotic
This is
NOT

Responsive
Robotic
Architecture
Living System
Tensegrity Structures
Uncertainty
Archi
tecture
We need a variable architecture as our variable life, the only constant in our life is change so do the buildings embracing us ought to be
Responsive architecture is thus having the ability to change shape, alter its form and configuration in response to fluctuating patterns in real time with high intelligence to internal and external environmental changes.
Adaptable Structure
OR is it Smart Material
OR is it a Responsive Kinematics
Responsive systems are usually within five common debates which are:
First:
Real-time
environmental response, Second:
Structure
Third:
Smart Material
Fourth:
Automation
Fifth:
Transduction:
Embedded microprocessors, sensors and actuators.
Thesis Structure
The Brain

The System

The Machine/Body
Thesis Structure
Adaptable
Learnable
Responsive = Respond + Answering
Intelligent --> Being Smart
Unpredictable / Irrational
Fuzzy
Cybernetics
Cybernetics is about having a goal and taking action to achieve such a goal.

Cybernetics is considered a high level and theoretical science helping in forming problems and abstracting complex systems away to simpler metaphors
"Control in Animal & Machine"
Norbert Wieners
WHY Cybernetics
a) Analyzing existing systems; comparing systems which may at first appear very different; discerning and organizing patterns of interaction; and evaluating the way a proposed design fits its context.

b) Cybernetics apply at several scales: simple interaction between human and device; interaction among component sub-systems; interactions among people through devices or services; interactions between people and businesses and between businesses; and interactions within markets.

c) Cybernetics also provide a way to look forward in design and suggest the kinds of research from which design practice and development of software applications and services may benefit.

d) Particular interest for design research are systems that model user’s goals, systems that help users model and clarify their own goals, systems that facilitate participation, self-organizing systems, and systems that evolve.

Pask Contribution
• Pask (1960) proposed a cybernetic paradigm for architectural design which includes the following stages:


a. Specifying the purpose or the goals of the occupants
b. Choosing the tectonic materials.
c. Selecting the static behavior of the space.
d. Specifying what the environment learns about and how it adapts.
e. Choosing a plan for adapting the environment.
And Neither this;
it is not about aiding robots ...
How Design and Cybernetics Reflect Each Other
I have been accused of searching a topic not related to architecture.

The issue is: What is our local architecture related to?
?
What are we really
Building
?
Expecting
?
Variable = Change Over time
Swarming
Collaborating
Is a type of artificial intelligence based on the collective behavior of decentralized, self-organized systems
Architects are using swarm technology as a means of creating complex interactive systems or simulating crowds.
Swarm technology is particularly attractive because it is cheap, robust, and simple.
Real Time / Non Real Time
Real-time computing (RTC) is the study of hardware and software systems that are subject to a "real-time constraint", i.e. operational deadlines from event to system response.
Non-real-time system is one for which there is no deadline, even if fast response or high performance is desired or preferred.
Algorithm
Agents
Game Theory
Interaction
“Can we now
teach
our machines or
environments
first complex, then self-organizing intelligence which we can ultimately refine into being evolutionary? The first answer to this question is that
we do not know how
. But if we do not know how to create a complex self-’ organizing evolutionary environment, we can at least
begin assembling the ingredients
and concepts that can, by trial and error, produce better tools. If the task is impossible, we shall at least learn why.”
Warren Brodey 1967

” A Medical Doctor specializing in cybernetics and psychiatry, Brodey worked for the NASA Electronic Research Center, and was the first MD to be employed at the AI (Artificial Intelligence) Lab at MIT.
Nicholas Negroponte
History
Negroponte proposes that responsive architecture is the natural product of the integration of computing power into built spaces and structures.
Andrew Rabeneck
"That architects should use cybernetic technologies to produce completely new types of increasingly flexible, user-centered, buildings".
Architecture can be considered as a living system that can sense, move, and reconfigure itself in response to changing needs.
Form Follow Fiction
Agents
An agent is defined as a computer system that is situated in some environment and is capable of autonomous actions in this environment in order to meet its design objectives
AI
“AI is the art of creating machines that performs functions that require intelligence when performed by people
AI vs Cybernetics
“Responsive Robotic Model is the capability of a system to respond rapidly to uncertainty through cybernetics thinking method.”
Human versus Machine
Relative Strengths of Humans
Sense unexpected stimuli
Develop new solutions to problems
Cope with abstract problems
Adapt to change
Generalize from observations
Learn from experience
Make difficult decisions base on
incomplete information

Relative Strengths of Machines
Perform repetitive tasks consistently
Store large amounts of data
Retrieve data from memory reliably
Perform multiple tasks at the same time
Apply high forces and power
Perform simple computations quickly
Make routine decisions quickly

Human-computer interaction is noted as an interdisciplinary field focused on the interactions between human users and computer systems
HCI
Human
Senses
Perception
Memory
Cognition
Action
Effectors

Computer / Systems
Displays
Memory
Processing
Controls

Interaction is a two way process of control & feedback.
A system is a collection of parts that work together to achieve a goal/task.
Human
Systems
System engineering is designing, implementing, deploying and operating systems which include hardware, software & people
Hardware software
Muscle Body
Real-time interactive spaces: MUSCLE Prototypes
Furl: Soft Pneumatic Pavilion
“Furl” combines Electroencephalography (EEG) with advances in soft silicone casting of “air muscles”.
The introduction of soft robotics replaces the mechanical principles in interactive architecture through a biological paradigm.
EEG allows sensing of human brain functioning so that our environments begin moving and responding to our very thoughts.
http://www.interactivearchitecture.org/furl-soft-pneumatic-pavilion.html

(EEG) is the recording of electrical activity along the scalp.
EEG measures voltage fluctuations resulting from ionic current flows within the neurons of the brain. In clinical contexts, EEG refers to the recording of the brain's spontaneous electrical activity over a short period of time, usually 20–40 minutes, as recorded from multiple electrodes placed on the scalp.
Embedded Systems
is a computer system with a dedicated function within a larger mechanical or electrical system, often with real-time computing constraints
is designed to do some specific task, rather than be a general-purpose computer for multiple tasks
reducing the number of bugs, or defects in a computer program
Transduction
Actuators
Transduction is the process of energy conversion between either different energy domains (thermal energy → mechanical energy) or different energy types within the same domain (rotational energy → translational energy)
Sensors
The Air Flow(er) is an energy independent thermally active ventilation device which behaves like a flower, whose “petals” open wide when exposed to warmer temperatures. As a building heats up past a specific temperature threshold (approximately 80°F), the panel system opens up to allow air to flow into a building. Once the interior space cools past its lower temperature threshold (approximately 60°F), the panels close to keep the temperature regulated at comfortable levels. The active component in the Air Flow(er) device is a custom manufactured Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) wire
The Air Flow(er)
EAP
A dielectric EAP actuator is basically a compliant capacitor, where a thin elastomer film is sandwiched between two compliant electrodes. When a high DC voltage (kV) is applied to the electrodes, the arising electrostatic pressure squeezes the elastomer film in thickness and thus the film expands in planar directions.
http://www.liftarchitects.com/air-flower/
The Muscle Tower II, building’s structure which responds to external stimuli (the weather) and internal conditions (the users), The Hyperbody Research group, 2004.
http://caad-eap.blogspot.com/p/video.html
Shape Shift Project
Muscle Tower
Pneumatic
Tensegrity
Tensegrity concept is a truss-like structures making use of simple elements that is based on the use of isolated components of compression inside a net of continuous tension, in such a way that the compressed members (usually bars or struts) do not touch each other and the pre-stressed tensioned members (usually cables or tendons) delineate the system spatially.
Kinetic
Kinetic architecture is a concept through which buildings are designed to allow parts of the structure to move, without reducing overall structural integrity
Structure
Luis Quelhas
Tensegrity structures & Kinetic structures are both, of course, nothing new. What is new, however, is the potential for these structures to adapt and change their form.
kinetic + Tensegrity =
Mobile +mobility of less than zero
Static -> Dynamic
THE ONLY CONSTANT IS
CHANGE
SO DO RESPONSIVENESS”
Problem Statement
Buildings are static
Solution
Designing for Uncertainty
Acting in Real Time


Why
Cybernetics
http://pedro.co.za/content/meta-follies-real-time-responsive-architecture
“Meta-Follies for the Metropolitan Landscape” by ecoLogicStudio
Nor this ?
http://www.interactivearchitecture.org/house-swarming-infranatural.html
Conclusion
Exploring the
theoretical
roots of responsive architecture while establishing a
framework
that describes the
relationships
between the physical
systems
used within responsive buildings
Defining the “Brain”, through the cybernetics method of thinking and designing for uncertainty
Introducing soft techniques to tackle down and allow exploring complex system
Creating the interaction between human occupants and perceived space
Epithelium, Close-up
Thanks for your Attention
Hike I am Back
Responsiveness SWOT
(Strength, Weakness, Opportunities and Threats)

Innovate a built environment that morphs itself for best performance in response to varying external forces or occupants’ internal response.
Lack of comprehensive reference projects, without comprehensive case study projects, no evaluation of actual usability or performance of responsive can be made.

Providing such increased performance of the continuous self-improvement of the built environment based on constantly gathered feedback.


An environment which continuously transforms may involve certain unwanted cultural and psychological phenomena.
Recommendations
Active
Passive
Combined
Defining means to construct a responsive structure
Tensegrity
Kinetic
Smart Material
Full transcript