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Astrology - Mercury and Venus

Ms. Levy is a great teacher.
by

Jerad McMickle

on 11 February 2011

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Transcript of Astrology - Mercury and Venus

SPACE THE FINAL FRONTIER Mercury Venus Mercury is the closest planet to the sun in our solar system, and is followed by Venus. Mercury has a surface area of 28,900,000 square miles. Mercury has a diameter of roughly 4879.4 kilometers. Mercury has a mass of around
3.3022 x 10^23 kilometers, which equates to just around the mass of 00.55 Earths. Mercury has a volume of 6.083 x 10^10 kilometers, which is roughly 0.056 the amount of Earth's volume. Mercury has a gravitational force of 0.38 g on the surface. Mercury has a density of
5.427 g/cm^3. Mercury has no moons. Mercury's solar day lasts for roughly 176 Earth days. Mercury's revolution
period is just about 88
Earth days long. Mercury's orbital speed is averaged at about 47.87 kilometers per second. Mercury's orbital plane is inclined
by seven degrees to the plane of Earth's orbit. Mercury has zero satellites. NASA's MESSENGER spacecraft is the second ever to visit Mercury, and will be the first to orbit the planet once it reaches its gravitational field in March 2011. Venus is the second planet in our solar system.
It is located behind Mercury, but in front of Earth. Venus has a surface area of
4.602 x 10^8 kilometers squared. Venus has a diameter of 12,104 kilometers. Venus has a mass of 4.8685 x 10^24 kilograms. Venus has a volume of 9.284 x 10^11 kilograms. The gravity on Venus is 86% of that of Earth's,
weighing in at a total of 29.1 f/s^2. Venus has a density of 5.204 g/cm^3. Venus has no moons. Venus's solar day lasts roughly 224.7
Earth days long. Venus's revolution period is about
1.9 Venus days long. Venus's orbital speed is an average of
35.02 km/s. Venus's orbital plane is 3.39 degrees. On June 6, 2012, you will be able to see Venus crawling across the sun. The next transit will not be until December 2117. The atmosphere is made out of:
Sulfur dioxide 150 PPM
Argon 70 PPM
Water vapor 20 PPM
Carbon monoxide 17 PPM
Helium 12 PPM
Neon 7 PPM
Hydrogen chloride 0.1 - 0.6 PPM
Hydrogen fluoride 0.001 - 0.005 PPM
PPM stands for parts-per-million. In comparison to Earth, there is no weather on Venus. There are no large fluctuations in the temperature and winds on Venus. Venus's clouds pour down an acid rain, which evaporates before it even reaches the surface due to the constant high temperatures. Venus often experiences large lightning storms. In fact, one Russian
probe once recorded over twenty-five lightning flashes per second during one
especially large storm. There are about 1,800 thunderstorms at any given time
on Earth, but one small area on Venus has more lightning than all of those 1,800 storms combined. The atmosphere is hotter and denser than Earth's, with an outstanding
pressure of 93 bars. Venus's temperature is usually around 872 Fahrenheit. Venus's atmosphere supports opaque clouds that are made out of sulfuric acid, which in turn make optical observations of the surface impossible. The main atmospheric gases that Venus has are carbon dioxide and nitrogen, and the rest of the chemical compounds are only present in small amounts. Unlike Earth, Venus's atmosphere lacks a magnetic field. Venus's atmosphere can circle the planet in only four Earth days, which is quite small in comparison to the planet's day, which comes in at almost 243 Earth days long. Mercury was known about by ancient men, at a time so long ago that to this day the approximate date of the event has not been found. Mercury's weak atmosphere makes it
tough for the planet to stop impacts that could occur from comets or asteroids. Mercury does not have any weather, but it does have fluctuations in temperature based on the location. The temperatures can be quite extreme, ranging from 800 degrees Fahrenheit to -300 degrees Fahrenheit, Due to Mercury's small stature, it has a weak force of gravity which isn't ample to maintain a normal atmosphere. The atmosphere instead is very thin and is constantly being "carried away." In fact, one of the main contributors to the fact
that Mercury still has an atmosphere is because
gases are constantly being adding to said atmosphere. Venus was named after the Roman goddess of love and beauty. Galileo's observations of the phases of Venus
were beneficial evidence in support of Copernicus's
heliocentric theory of the solar system. The first spacecraft to reach Venus was the Manner 2
in 1962, though at this time it has been visited on over
twenty occasions. Statistics History The planet was named by the Romans,
after a messenger to the gods that was
incredibly fast. Mercury has one of the fastest
orbits in our solar system, so
this name is not surprising. Meterology Meterologist Statistics History
Geology Geology
Mercury's crust is 100 - 200
kilometers thick. Mercury's mantle is 600
kilometers thick. The core has a 1,800 kilometer radius. The surface of Mercury is similar to the moon's,
featuring extensive plains and densely cratered terrains. Mercury has no rings. Mercury formed 4.6
million years ago. Merucry's geological history
is divided into eras:
the Pre-Tolstajan era,
the Tolstojan era,
the Calorian era,
the Mansurian era,
and the Kuiperian era. Venus's crust is 50 km thick,
and is composed of silicate rocks. Venus's mantle is 3,000 km
thick, though the composition
is unknown. Venus's core is approximately 3,000 KM
from the surface to the core. The core is presumed to have a core made
out of semisolid iron and nickel. Venus's surface is dominated by volcanoes, with an outstanding amount of over a hundred isolated shield volcanoes. Over 80% of the surface is
riddled with lava plains. Venus has no rings.
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