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Beauty Norms in the Media
Transcript of Beauty Norms in the Media
Do men receive as much pressure from the media to achieve a normative masculine appearance?
Beauty norms: Standards of attractiveness that are socially and culturally enforced and dictated.
Though there is media and societal pressures to achieve a masculine appearance, the pressure isn't extremely heavy. Men are nowhere near women when it comes to experiencing pressure from media in achieving attractiveness.
Do Your Masculinity
Doing gender in regards to masculinity has little to do with appearance and more the media's expectation of manliness.
Women Actually Have It Worse
Beauty norms targeted at men are prevalent within the media referenced as fitness lifestyles.
The Media.....A rose by any other name.
Yup...men have it just as bad
Nah...it's not that bad
What do you think?
Men have as much pressure from the society to achieve a normative masculine appearance.
Who would you want to date?
They are marketed by athletes, celebrities, and musicians.
These norms are enforced by all of you.
Vandenbosch and Eggermont (2013) found that sexualized prime time television and pornographic websites had a direct relationship with internalization of accepted appearance ideals and an indirect relationship with self objectification.
There is more pressure from the media to achieve masculinity not through appearance, but through actions (ex. "doing gender"). The construction and performance of a gendered identity are influenced by one's access to the means for accomplishing one or another version of femininity or masculinity (Kramer, 67). If a man does not achieve the normative masculine appearance, he can still achieve masculinity through behavior ( Brannon's components of masculinity).
What Do We Think?
Although men experience pressures from the media to obtain a normative masculine appearance, women experience and are affected at a higher rate by media and societal pressures to obtain a normative feminine look.
"Although body satisfaction is an important component of self-esteem for both men and women, women often report lower body esteem than do men" (Vartanian, Giant, Passino 2001).
Ward, Merriwether, Caruthers (2006)
Kramer, Laura (2005). The Sociology of Gender: A Brief Introduction. 2nd ed. Los Angeles: Roxbury, 67. Print.
Baird, A. L., & Grieve, F. G. (2006). Exposure to male models in advertisements leads to a decrease in men's body satisfaction. North American Journal of Psychology, 9(1), 115-121.
Ward, L. M., Merriwether A., & Caruthers A. (2006). Breasts Are for Men: Media, Masculinity Ideologies, and Men's Beliefs About Women's Bodies. Sex Roles, 55(9-10), 703-714.
Vartanian, L., Giant, C. L., & Passino, R. M. (2001). 'Ally McBeal vs. Arnold Schwarzenegger': Comparing mass media, interpersonal feedback and gender as predictors of satisfaction with body thinness and muscularity. Social Behavior And Personality, 29(7), 711-723.
Núñez-Navarro, A., Agüera, Z., Krug, I., Jiménez-Murcia, S., Sánchez, I., Araguz, N., & ... Fernández-Aranda, F. (2012). Do men with eating disorders differ from women in clinics, psychopathology and personality?. European Eating Disorders Review, 20(1), 23-31
Jankowski, Glen S., Phillippa C. Diedrichs, and Emma Halliwell. (2013, March 4). "Can Appearance Conversations Explain Differences Between Gay and Heterosexual Men's Body Dissatisfaction?."
Martin, J. J., Kliber, A., Kulinna, P. H., & Fahlman, M. (2006). Social physique anxiety and muscularity and appearance cognitions in college men. Sex Roles, 55(3-4), 151-158.
Vandenbosch, L., & Eggermont, S. (2013). Sexualization of Adolescent Boys: Media Exposure and Boys’ Internalization of Appearance Ideals, Self-Objectification, and Body Surveillance. Men and Masculinities.
Community population studies report 15% people with anorexia nervosa are male and 8-10% with bulimia nervosa are male (Nunez-Navarro et. al. 2012)
Most girls have been on at least one diet before they complete high school (Vartanian, Giant, Passino 2001)
Men's body dissatisfaction is prevalent and a serious health concern as it is associated with negative outcomes like depression, disordered eating and anabolic steroid abuse ( Jankowski, 2013).
Social Physique Anxiety
Between 4%-16.2% of men reported high levels of pressure to engage in appearance conversations
Baird and Grieve (2006) found that in a study of 173 men introductory psychology courses, participants who viewed ads with male models showed an increase in body dissatisfaction while those that only saw ad products had no change in body dissatisfaction.