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Ionic Bonding

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by

Robert Nelson

on 10 December 2013

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Transcript of Ionic Bonding

Ionic Bonding
1. Atoms will gain or lose electrons to satisfy the octet rule.
2. Opposite charges attract each other.
3. This attraction sticks the atoms together.
4. This is called an ionic bond.
Properties of Ionic Compounds
Ionic compounds have orderly structures that create crystals.
They have high melting points.
They conduct electricity when dissolved in water.
Strongest bond between atoms.
Only occurs BETWEEN a metal and nonmetal.

You should now be able to....
Atom Charges
When an atom gains an electron, it ends up with more electrons than protons.

Will it gain or lose electrons?
Metal atoms will lose valence
electrons in chemical reactions. They will have a positive charge. These are called
cations
.
Non-metal atoms will gain electrons
in chemical reactions. They will have a negative charge. These are called
anions
.
Atomic Structure
1. There is one electron shell/orbital per period/layer of the periodic table.
2. The innermost shell (closest to nucleus) can only hold 2 electrons.
3. The valence shell (furthest from nucleus) can hold up to 8 electrons.
Ionic Bonding
Numbered Charges
The number of extra protons or electrons will determine the number of the charge.
The Octet Rule
Atoms will gain or lose electrons to
maintain a full outer shell of valence electrons.
A full outer/valence shell is 8 valence electrons.
1-3 valence electrons = lose those electrons.
4 valence electrons = gain or lose enough to make 8.
5-7 valence electrons = gain enough to
make 8.
8 valence electrons = no loss or gain

1. Determine the charge of an atom.
2. Determine how many electrons an atom would gain or lose in a reaction.
3. Describe how an ionic bond occurs.
4. List or draw the properties of ionic compounds.
What is an ion?
1. An ion is where the number of electrons and protons do not equal.
2. Atoms can gain or lose electrons.
3. Only valence electrons can be gained or lost.
It has more negative bits than positive, so it has a negative charge.
When an atom loses an electron, it ends up with more protons than electrons.
It has more positive bits than negative, so it has a positive charge.
If a calcium atom loses 2 electrons, then it has two more protons than electrons.
It will have a +2 charge
Full transcript