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Transcript of Risk Assessment
Dumb Ways to Die
Hazard vs Risk - Same Difference?
What is risk?
is the chance or probability that a person will be harmed or experience an adverse health effect if exposed to a hazard. It may also apply to situations with property or equipment loss.
What is a hazard?
is any source of potential damage, harm or adverse health effects on something or someone under certain conditions at work.
The risk of developing cancer from smoking cigarettes could be expressed as "cigarette smokers are 12 times (for example) more likely to die of lung cancer than non-smokers". Another way of reporting risk is "a certain number, "Y", of smokers per 100,000 smokers will likely develop lung cancer" (depending on their age and how many years they have been smoking).
These risks are expressed as a probability or likelihood of developing a disease or getting injured, whereas hazards refer to the possible consequences (e.g., lung cancer, emphysema and heart disease from cigarette smoking).
Hazard and Risk
Risk assessment is the process where you:
Analyze or evaluate the risk associated with that hazard.
Determine appropriate ways to eliminate or control the hazard.
a risk assessment is a thorough look at your workplace to identify those things, situations, processes, etc that may cause harm, particularly to people. After identification is made, you evaluate how likely and severe the risk is, and then decide what measures should be in place to effectively prevent or control the harm from happening.
How do you do a risk assessment?
Evaluate the likelihood of an injury or illness occurring, and its severity.
Consider normal operational situations as well as non-standard events such as shutdowns, power outages, emergencies, etc.
Review all available health and safety information about the hazard such as MSDSs, manufacturers literature, information from reputable organizations, results of testing, etc.
Identify actions necessary to eliminate or control the risk.
Monitor and evaluate to confirm the risk is controlled.
What are examples of a hazard?
What is a risk assessment?
1. Identify Hazards
To be sure that all hazards are found:
Look at all aspects of the work.
Include non-routine activities such as maintenance, repair, or cleaning.
Look at accident / incident / near-miss records.
Include people who work "off site" either at home, on other job sites, drivers, teleworkers, with clients, etc.
Look at the way the work is organized or "done" (include experience and age of people doing the work, systems being used, etc).
Look at foreseeable unusual conditions (for example: possible impact on hazard control procedures that may be unavailable in an emergency situation, power outage, etc.).
Examine risks to visitors or the public.
1. Identify Hazards
How are the hazards identified?
Ranking or prioritizing hazards is one way to help determine which hazard is the most serious and thus which hazard to control first. Priority is usually established by taking into account the employee exposure and the potential for accident, injury or illness. The following factors play an important role:
percentage of workforce exposed
frequency of exposure
degree of harm likely to result from the exposure
probability of occurrence
2. Evaluate the likelihood of an injury or illness occurring, and its severity
How do you rank or prioritize the risks?
Or, Table 4, where 1 = extremely important to do something as soon as possible, 6 = hazard may not need immediate attention.
3. Identify actions necessary to eliminate or control the risk
When controlling risks, apply the principles below:
try a less risky option (eg switch to using a less hazardous chemical);
prevent access to the hazard (eg by guarding);
organize work to reduce exposure to the hazard (eg put barriers between pedestrians and traffic);
issue personal protective equipment (eg clothing, footwear, goggles etc);
provide welfare facilities (eg first aid and washing facilities for removal of contamination).
Can I get rid of the hazard altogether?
If not, how can I control the risks so that harm is unlikely?
What are the main ways to control a hazard?
The main ways to control a hazard include:
Elimination (including substitution):
remove the hazard from the workplace.
includes designs or modifications to plants, equipment, ventilation systems, and processes that reduce the source of exposure.
controls that alter the way the work is done, including timing of work, policies and other rules, and
such as standards and operating procedures (including training, housekeeping, and equipment maintenance, and personal hygiene practices).
Personal Protective Equipment:
equipment worn by individuals to reduce exposure such as contact with chemicals or exposure to noise.
These methods are also known as the "hierarchy of control" because they should be considered in the order presented (it is always best to try to eliminate the hazard first, etc).
What is meant by elimination?
Elimination is the process of removing the hazard from the workplace. It is the most effective way to control a risk because the hazard is no longer present. It is the preferred way to control a hazard and should be used when ever possible.
What is substitution?
Substitution occurs when a new chemical or substance is used instead of another chemical.It is sometimes grouped with elimination because, in effect, you are removing the first substance or hazard from the workplace. The goal, obviously, is to choose a new chemical that is less hazardous than the original.
The table below provides some examples:
How do I know what kind of control is needed?
Choosing a control method may involve:
evaluating and selecting temporary and permanent controls
implementing temporary measures until permanent (engineering) controls can be put in place
implementing permanent controls when reasonably practicable
For example, in the case of a noise hazard, temporary measures might require workers to use hearing protection. Long term, permanent controls might use engineering methods to remove or isolate the noise source.
Engineering controls are methods that are built into the design of a plant, equipment or process to minimize the hazard. Engineering controls are a very reliable way to control worker exposures as long as the controls are designed, used and maintained properly. The basic types of engineering controls are:
Enclosure and/or isolation of emission source, and
Enclosure & Isolation
These methods aim to keep the chemical "in" and the worker "out" (or vice versa).
Isolation places the hazardous process "geographically" away from the majority of the workers. Common isolation techniques are to create a contaminant-free booth either around the equipment or around the employee workstations.
Process control involves changing the way a job activity or process is done to reduce the risk. Monitoring should be done before and as well as after the change is implemented to make sure the changes did result in lower exposures.
Examples of process changes include to:
Use wet methods rather than dry when drilling or grinding. "Wet method" means that water is sprayed over a dusty surface to keep dust levels down or material is mixed with water to prevent dust from being created.
Use steam cleaning instead of solvent degreasing (but be sure to evaluate the potential high temperature hazard being introduced such as heat stress).
Use electric motors rather than diesel ones to eliminate diesel exhaust emissions.
Ventilation is a method of control that strategically "adds" and "removes" air in the work environment. Ventilation can remove or dilute an air contaminant if designed properly.
The design of a ventilation system is very important and must match the particular process and chemical or contaminant in use.
Work practices are also a form of administrative controls. In most workplaces, even if there are well designed and well maintained engineering controls present, safe work practices are very important. Some elements of safe work practices include:
Developing and implementing standard operating procedures.
Training and education of employees about the operating procedures as well as other necessary workplace training.
Establishing and maintaining good housekeeping programs.
Keeping equipment well maintained.
Preparing and training for emergency response for incidents such as spills, fire or employee injury.
What are examples of administrative controls?
Administrative controls limit workers' exposures by scheduling shorter work times in contaminant areas or by implementing other "rules". These control measures have many limitations because the hazard itself is not actually removed or reduced. Methods of administrative control include:
Scheduling maintenance and other high exposure operations for times when few workers are present (such as evenings, weekends).
Using job-rotation schedules that limit the amount of time an individual worker is exposed to a substance.
Using a work-rest schedule that limits the length of time a worker is exposure to a hazard.
Education and Training
Employee education and training on how to conduct their work safely helps to minimize the risk of exposure and is a critical element of any complete workplace health and safety program.
Good housekeeping is essential to prevent the accumulation of hazardous or toxic materials (e.g., build-up of dust or contaminant on ledges, or beams), or hazardous conditions (e.g., poor stockpiling).
Who is at risk?