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Palestinians and Isreal conflict

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lujain amayri

on 4 November 2016

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Transcript of Palestinians and Isreal conflict

Israel and the Palestinians: The Conflict
Case Study: The Oslo Accords
Pre-Oslo 1967-1991
Historical Overview, populations data on both sides, Jews in the Middle East region
Can we use theories to understand the region?(realism, constructivism, religion)
Comparison between Arabs views and Israel views
Nationalism and domestic politics in the conflict
Case study: Oslo Accords

- UN Security Council Resolution 242, 1967
- Camp David Accords, 1978
- The Madrid Conference, 1991
The Oslo Accords Between Israel and Palestine, Sept. 13, 1993

What was the role of population movements?

Did domestic politics determine foreign policy or the reverse?

To what extent did the dominant foreign power promote peace?

Historical overview
British Mandate
Jews Agency 1929 + Military organizations (Haganah, Jews Agency 1929 + Military organizations

Violence against Brits and Arabs + land occupation -> The British propose several partition plans

Arab Revolt 1936-39 against Brits and Jews -> The British promise to limit Jewish immigration and to concede independence within 10 years

End WW2, the British are too weak to stay -> Nov 1947 UN Partition Plan

The 1948 War
Civil war 1947-1948 -> Ben Gurion vs Abd Al-Husayni
The British leave, but the US is not willing to get massively involved yet
Foundation of Israel 14 May 1948 -> Arab Invasion (Egypt, Lebanon, Syria, Jordan)
Intial Arab success -> USSR provides weapons through Czechoslovakia -> Israel success
Israel expand even beyond the UN borders, Jordan takes the West Bank and Egypt Gaza
800.000 Palestinians from Israel + 800.000 Jewish from ME (600.000 to Israel)

1. Letters of Mutual Recognition - Sept. 1993
2. Declaration of Principles on Interim and Self-Government Arrangements - Sept. 1993
3. Paris Protocol on Economic Relations - April 1994
4. Agreement on Gaza Strip and the Jericho Area (“Cairo Agreement”) - May 1994
5. Agreement on Preparatory Transfer of Powers and Responsibilities – Aug. 1994
6. Israeli-Palestinian Interim Agreement on the West Bank and the Gaza Strip (“Oslo II”) – Sept. 1995
7. Protocol Concerning the Redeployment in Hebron – Jan. 1996
8. Wye River Memorandum – Oct. 1998
9. Sharm el-Sheikh Memorandum – Sept. 1999

The Suez Crisis 1956
US withdrwas financial aid -> Nasser nationalization of Suez Canal and USSR financial and military aid

Israel invasion for Straits of Tyran + Fra and UK

Egyptian military defeat -> USSR menaces intervention -> US (and international pression) forces Europeans and Israel to withdraw -> UNEF

Nasser as champion of Arab Nationalism -> Palestians under his lead

The 6-day War 1967
Nasser mobilization -> Israel strikes, strong of massive US financial and military aid -> Syria and Jordan intervention

Overwhelming Israel superiority -> Sinai, Gaza, West Bank and Golan Heights occupied

Khartoum resolution -> no peace + no recognition + no negotiation

Shock for the Arab world pand end of Nasser -> rise of PLO

UN resolution 242 -> Israel to withdrawl + territorial integrity

Involvement of the United States
1964 -> umbrella organization for liberation of Palestine
1969 -> Arafat takes the lead, secular framework
Opposed by Hamas, Hezbollah and PIJ

Fatah -> nationalism, secularism, progressive socialism
PFLP -> marxist, Arab nationalism, militant
PDFLP -> maoist, Palestinian nationalism > J/A

Black September 1970 in Jordan -> moves to Beirut -> Tunis -> PA
PA is losing consensus -> blocked negotiation + Hamas succes 2006 + elite/population gap + concentration of power -> not capable of sovereignty

Post-Oslo/Ultimate Failure?
The 1973 War 
Egypt and Syria early success -> Israel not invincible (heavy losses) -> US aid and oil embargo

Israel fights back and close to Cairo, but Kissinger stops it -> occasion to gain back Egypt

1978 Camp David Agreements with US -> Palestine self-rule + Egy-Isr peace + principles for Isr-Arab relation -> rejected by UN for not involing Palestinians

Israeli politics

Socialist coalition, lead by Mapai, ruled the country from 1948 to 1977 (unique Labor party since 1968, now Zionist Union)

Likud, right wing party founded in 1973 as a reaction to the war losses, winning the elections in 1977

Other parties: Shas (ultra orthodox) + Yesh Atid (Sharon) + Kadima (center) ...

Joint list of four principle Arab parties 10%, third force -> recognition of citizenship, human rights, bedouins rights and land ownership -> issue of double identiy and second-class citizens

Alternance in power, but now Likud Gov since 2001 because no trust in negotiating positions of the left + interest groups support Likud's line (US lobby, settlers...)

From Lebanon to Lebanon
Lebanon -> 1978 invasion + 1982 invasion and Hezbollah -> PLO to Tunis

Intifada I -> 1987-1993 popular rise + declaration of independence 1988

Oslo 1993 with US -> Labour back with Rabin + OLP-PA weak back to Palestine

Intifada II 2000 + Israel away from Gaza e Northern West Bank 2005

Israel – Lebanon war -> major offensive VS Hezbollah

Nos larmes ont la même couleur - mères Palestinienne Israélienne - douleur commune

While the world sleeps "Swzan Abo Al Howa "
Comparison Arabs v.s Israel views
Ideology against international law
Zionism v.s Rhetoric about law, rights of people to get their land
Process of settlements v.s Intifada
Intifadas,victimization,reaction v.s Settlements
Recognition of State?
Who supports a Israel State? v.s Who supports a Palestinian State?
The wall
Perception for Israel v.s Perception for Palestine
How can IR theory help us understand the Israel-Palestine conflict?

Feminist IR critiques of realism
Constructivism: role of identity and ideas/religion
Battle for statehood
Mearsheimer’s 5 key assumptions

Anarchical international system
Offensive military capability of great powers
Uncertainty of other states’ intentions
Goal of state survival
States are rational actors

Israel as poster child of realism

Feminist IR critiques of realism
Logic of masculinity underpinning and used to legitimate Mearsheimer’s theory (Hutchings 2008)

----> used to differentiate btw good/bad actors, great/weak powers, pathological/normal stateness (manliness)

Relevance for Israel-Palestine//constructivism

Scott: « gender as primary way of signifying power »
Palestinian cause/actors feminised and racialised
Israeli actions framed as « rational »//logic of masculinity
Hegemonic masculinity at centre of Israeli-nation building
Palestinian cause/actors consistently feminized/racialised = OTHER

Constructivism: role of identity and ideas/religion

Palestinian identity//trauma
Israeli identity//trauma
SHARED sense of victimhood, existential fears


State of Israel = sacred entity
Example of Jewish settlers living in Occupied West Bank
Religious Zionism sees itself as DISCONNECTED from political context

- Camp David 2000
- Roadmap 2003 & Geneva 2003
- Annapolis 2007
- Washington 2010
- Kerry Initiative 2013
What does this mean for Palestinian and Israeli Society?
- US as an honest peace/policy broker?
- UN Security Council Resolutions
- Financing of Settlements
- Double-edged sword of US policy
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