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reaction kinectics

autumn gayton

on 13 May 2010

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Transcript of chem30

By: Autumn and Kaila Collision Theory In order for a reaction to occur, the reacting molecules (reactants) must collide with each other with enough energy (force) to cause bonds in the reacting molecules to break! This "required energy" is called the activation energy! Analogy
As you increase the players on a football field, the higher amount of collisions. When there are less players on the field, the chances of collisions reduce. THEORY Orientation The colliding molecules must be oriented in a specific way to ause a rearrangement of bonds. If the colliding molecules are not oriented in the correct way, or the clollision has less than the required energy (activation energy), the rectants will bounce off each other without a reaction occuring. 1. Gases consist of particles in continuous, random motion.
2. Collisions between gas particles are elastic.
3. The average energy of translational motion of a gas particle is directly proportional to temperature. Postulates of Kinetic Theory Does temperature affect the reaction of a chemical reaction? As the temperature increases, so does the rate of the reaction. For everytime the temperature rises about ten degrees, the reaction rate time doubles. Why does this happen? By heating the mixture you are raising the energy level of molecules in the reaction. Basically, making the molecules move faster. The number of collisions increases and the molecules gain more energy, speeding up the overall reaction. Maxwell- Boltzmann Distribution Curve This curve displays how the speeds of the mixture of moving particles varies at a particular temperature (The mixture of all molecules are at a constant temperature.)
In other words, this graph is the number of particles having various energies and the area underneath the curve is the total number of particles present.
What This Shows Activation Complex Activation Energy How They're Related The activation complex is an unstable, high energy grouping of atoms. It is the intermediate (highest point) in every chemical reaction in which the bonds of the reactants have not quite been broken and the product's new bonds have not yet been formed. The activation energy is the minimum required energy that is needed for the reaction to occur. These two terms are related because the activation energy is needed to being a reaction and leads to the activated complex, which is the highest point in the reaction (graph). Conservation of Energy Energy is NEVER created or destroyed but energy can change from one form to another. Chemical Potential and Kinetic Energy Chemical potential energy is a form of stored energy that is the result of the structual arrangement of atoms or molecules. Kinetic Energy is the possessed by an object with a mass that has movement. How All 3 Are Related When the atoms or molecules have stored energy (Chemical potential energy) and when the energy is put into use, the energy becomes kinetic energy. During this process the law of conservation of energy is used change the form (states). Potential Energy Diagram Change of heat (Enthalpy change)
Determine if it's exothermic or endothermic.
Where the activated complex is.
Determine activation energy.
Determine activation energy for the forward and reverse reaction.
Determine the weekest bonds and strongest bonds and what ones are stable and unstable.
The potential energy and kinetic energy.
What are the reactants and products.

Information the Diagram
Provides The medal balls swing in continuous, random motion because when the balls collide they are elastic and continue to transfer energy from one to another. If the temperature increases, the balls possibly would swing faster.
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