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Radical America:

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by

Jarod Roll

on 3 March 2016

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Transcript of Radical America:

Radical America:
Socialism, Anarchism, and Beyond

HIS 318
Dr. Roll
Anarchism:
--Haymarket
--Emma Goldman and Alexander Berkman
--Black Hand
--mainly European immigrant groups in networks connected to leading Anarchist thinkers in Europe
--propaganda of the deed
Socialist Labor Party
--old WP
--Daniel DeLeon
--small, doctrinaire
Socialist Party of America
--founded 1901
--Debs
--electoral strategy: overthrow of capitalism through the political revolution of the working class
Socialism in America:
--approx. 380 newspapers, 1880-1918
--Appeal to Reason (published in Girard, Kansas); The Rip-Saw (St. Louis); The Rebel (Texas)
--Arkansas, Alabama, Louisiana, Tennessee all had at least one
Popularity:
--cities, obviously
--immigrant groups, but also native-born Americans
--few African Americans
Popularity:
--but most popular in rural America
--Oklahoma, Kansas, Texas, Missouri, Arkansas
Elections:
--Debs ran for President, 1904, 1908, 1912, 1920
--2.98%, 2.83%, 5.9%, 3.41% of the popular vote
--Local level more significant:
--353 city or town leaders elected, 1880-1920
--1913/1914: 33 Socialist state legislators elected
Brotherhood of Timber Workers
--founded 1910, Carson, LA, members in Louisiana, Mississippi, and east Texas
--industrial union, integrated
--led by Covington Hall, poet, lumberman, from Woodville, MS
--affiliated with Industrial Workers of the World (IWW)
Industrial Workers of the World (IWW)
--founded 1905, Chicago
--affiliates among SPA
--Big Bill Haywood, Elizabeth Gurley Flynn
--led by western miners in the WFM
--WFM left AFL in 1897, fed up with craft unionism
--Western Labor Union, 1898
--industrial union
IWW:
--Timber workers, migrant farm workers, miners, longshoremen
--machine operatives in eastern factories
--never more than 60,000 paid members, but ideas influential
IWW tactics:
--sit-down strike
--mobile strike support
--public relations propaganda
--flirted with 'propaganda of the deed'
Free Speech Campaigns:
--Missoula, Spokane, Fresno, San Diego, Patterson
Lawrence, MA, textile strike, 1912: 'bread and roses'
Patterson, NY, silk strike, 1913: strike pageant
Joe Hill, Utah, 1915: IWW martyr
Radicalism kept industrial unionism alive, alternative to craft unionism of the AFL

Radicals pushed the boundary of political discourse and action out to the left, creating space in the middle for more conservative AFL leaders to consolidate gains

Radicals not so good at building effective union organizations
--WFM left the IWW in 1908, re-joined AFL in 1910
Full transcript