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Maria Montessori

Maria Montessori
by

megan jackson

on 4 May 2013

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Transcript of Maria Montessori

Role of Teacher •Born August 31, 1870 in Chiaravalle, Italy to Alessandro and Renilde Montessori

•Began primary school in 1875 in Rome

•Entered a seven year state technical school in 1883

•Finished technical school in 1890 with an unusual certificate for women at the time: physics and engineering

•Enrolled in the University of Rome in a natural sciences degree program and completed medical school in 1896 Formative Years Early Career •Began seminal work and research with mentally and physically disabled children

•Became interested in early childhood education and analyzed contemporary educational theories such as those proposed by Rousseau, Seguin, and Itard

•Fell in love and had her only child, Mario Montessori in 1898 with a physician colleague

•Continued her private medical practice and disability advocacy through lectures and co-directing a teacher's college The Montessori Philosophy and Method 1. A “directress” who directs and guides the learning without interfering with it.

2. Using clinical observations of children, the teacher acts as a diagnostician who creates an educational profile, and a biography for each child. Maria Montessori Social and political context of Montessori’s life 1. Maria Montessori was born only 10 years after Italian unification.

2. Italy was going through a process of modernization.

3.Tenement districts arose to house the industrial underclass. Socioeducational milieu 1. The Italy was still a very traditional conservative country

2. Women roles were fixed by custom, tradition and social control

3. Conventional schooling, especially at elementary level, was centered on memorization, recitation and dictation Developments in Educational Theory 1. Montessori was skeptical of some of the educational theories of Rousseau, Pestalozzi, etc.

2. Montessori determined to create a scientifically based pedagogy in Italy. 1. All children at birth possess a psychic power
and an inner self teacher that stimulates their own self-directed learning.

2. Adult intervention is needed at certain times
but should decrease steadily as children learn
how to do things for themselves. Four operational principles that govern learning in the prepared environment 1. The principle of freedom to explore the environment in order to gain greater independence.

2. The development of will-the moral sense-by choosing the material with which one will be engaged and by respecting their peers’ work.

3. The power of attention in which a child concentrates on accomplishing a task.

4. The principle of work by which a child stays at a task, often performing repetitive actions, until it is mastered. Casa dei Bambini •In 1907, Montessori opened a new type of elementary school in a poor Roman district

•Began testing, refining, and developing her pedagogy

•Developed innovations such as child-friendly furniture and cupboards

•Promoted independent, autonomy, and teachers as directors Fame, Dictators, and World Wars Implications of success: more schools, international recognition and acceptance, tours, and critics (especially Dewey in the US)

Ran and developed state sponsored schools in Spain until 1924 when Military Junta disagreed

Mussolini invited her to develop their ECE program. Differences of opinion about politics, control, finance and house arrest helped the Montessoris leave in 1934

Used the Netherlands and finally India as relative havens for further development of her schooling system during the second World War.

Returned to Amsterdam in 1946 with her son and continued travels to build support for her system of education until she died in 1952 in the Netherlands Educational Legacy Student-centred and individualized education

Teacher as facilitator/director

Education as a scientific area of study

Use of developmentally appropriate manipulables

Montessori way or the highway

Popular ECE public school alternative even today 1896: First female in Italy to earn Doctor of Medicine
1899: director of State Orthrophrenic School in Rome
1904: Lecturer in Pedagogical Anthropology
1907: Opened first “Casa del Bambini”
1911-12: Schools opening world wide
1913: White House visit
1920s: Nominated for Government Inspector of Schools Montessori’s Accomplishments 1930s: Continuation of research, publications, etc..
Montessori in the United States
Critics of Montessori
Nominated for the Nobel Peace Prize in 1949, 1950, 1951 `
Common Core expects a deep understanding of important concepts rather than just shallow knowledge.
Montessori’s observations and research caused her to discover that young children learn through interacting with concrete objects to later gain a strong abstract understanding of that concept at as they mature. The Montessori method as it relates to Common Core Expectations
Montessori’s theories about children have influenced the way all early childhood programs are structured today.

In 1907, when Montessori opened her first school, child sized furnishings and tools and the idea of children working independently were considered radical.

Today ALL research based, age appropriate programs have furnishings that are conducive to the size of the child being served. Child-Centered Environments
Real, child sized tools
Materials and equipment accessible
Create beauty and order
Competence and responsibility
Give the responsibility to the child
Blocks of uninterrupted time
Observation 100 year old concept proven to be research based for today’s children
Montessori emphasized preparing the environment
Children learn through sensory experiences
Teacher is responsible for providing beautiful sights, smells, textures, and sounds for children
Believed that children could be taught to use real objects responsibly Child Centered Environment The fact is that when we see 21st Century early childhood classrooms outfitted with child sized furnishings such as small hammers, saws, workbenches, trowels for digging, rakes shovels, child sized sinks and toilets, we are looking directly into the influence of Maria Montessori’s theory and work.
In modern classrooms we often expect children to cut paper with dull scissors so they won’t get hurt. Montessori believed that children could be taught to use real tool safely. She believed giving children “safe” tools underestimated their competence. Real Child- Sized Tools
Montessori stressed the need for children to be able to reach materials when they need them, in order to help children become responsible for their own learning.
If every material has a place that is clearly marked in a child friendly way with photographs or drawings as well as the printed name of the material that belongs there, children have the power to get what the need and also put it away when they are finished. According to Montessori, knowing how to arrange an interesting, beautiful environment for children is as much a part of teaching as knowing how to select appropriate books for the library.
Some times adults believe that children have no real interest in the beauty of their environments. Research does not back up this belief. Montessori believed that beauty and order are critical to prepared environments for children. This belief is echoed today in the highly successful schools of the Reggio Method which was created out of the Montessori Method. Create beauty and order Children want and need to care for themselves and their surroundings.
Adults spend too much time “serving children”.
Believed that children who were not allowed to do things for themselves obviously never learn how to do it.
Fostering independence is foundational aspect of her Method.
She believed children learn best by “doing”
Montessori believed the teachers job was to prepare the environment, provide appropriate materials, and let the children experiment. Competence and Responsibility The more we mange for the children, in essence, the harder our jobs become.
Children have an innate “drive” to do real work. Even young children are offended “busy” work.
Children enjoy watching the garbage man, custodial worker, painter, cable layer, or secretary. Children want to do what grown people do. The early childhood teacher can see that in the everyday “play” of young children.
Montessori claimed that the sense of competence children gain from involvement in real life work enhances self esteem in a way that artificial activities never could. Give the Responsibility to the Child Observations led Montessori to believe that even very young children were capable of intense concentration when surrounded by interesting activates.
When children are engaged in serious work, they are less likely to be disruptive.
Large blocks of time allow children to become interested in an activity and not have to leave it until they have gone through the whole process in their minds and are “finished” with it for now.
Some teachers feel they aren't teaching if they don’t have lots of activities planned and keep to a rigorous unchanging schedule. Montessori disagreed. Blocks of uninterrupted time Montessori suggested that if we watch children carefully and then reflect on those observations, we can figure out what the children need that they are not getting from the environment.
The Montessori Method stresses that allowing children to provide the ideas for curriculum will make a more peaceful, exciting place to be.
Observation allows the teacher to assess a child’s needs and meet those needs in a small group or one-on-one. Observation, Observation, Observation Accessible Materials Observations led Montessori to believe that even very young children were capable of intense concentration when surrounded by interesting activates.
When children are engaged in serious work, they are less likely to be disruptive.
Large blocks of time allow children to become interested in an activity and not have to leave it until they have gone through the whole process in their minds and are “finished” with it for now.
Some teachers feel they aren't teaching if they don’t have lots of activities planned and keep to a rigorous unchanging schedule. Montessori disagreed. Observations led Montessori to believe that even very young children were capable of intense concentration when surrounded by interesting activates.
When children are engaged in serious work, they are less likely to be disruptive.
Large blocks of time allow children to become interested in an activity and not have to leave it until they have gone through the whole process in their minds and are “finished” with it for now.
Some teachers feel they aren't teaching if they don’t have lots of activities planned and keep to a rigorous unchanging schedule. Montessori disagreed. Megan Jackson
Suzanne Bandelin
Kimberly Buchanan
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