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Transcript of Guy Fawkes
married and had a son, but no known
contemporary accounts confirm this. Family Military career In 1604 Fawkes became involved with a
small group of English
Catholics, led by Robert Catesby,
who planned to assassinate
the Protestant King James and replace
him with his daughter,
third in the line of succession, Princess Elizabeth. Gunpowder Plot Guy Fawkes Fawkes was born and educated in York. His father died when Fawkes was eight years old, after which his mother married a recusant Catholic. In October 1591 Fawkes travelled to the continent to fight in the Eighty Years War for Catholic Spain against the new Dutch Republic and, from 1595 until the Peace of Vervins in 1598. He travelled to Spain to seek support for a Catholic rebellion in England but was unsuccessful. Later he returned to England. Gunpowder Plot ? In 1604 Fawkes became involved with a small group of English Catholics, led by Robert Catesby, who planned to assassinate the Protestant King James and replace him with his daughter, third in the line of succession, Princess Elizabeth. The first meeting of the five central conspirators took place on Sunday 20 May 1604, at an inn called the Duck and Drake, in the fashionable Strand district of London. The plan was to kill the King and his government by blowing up "the Parliament House with gunpowder" 1604-Fawkes began using the pseudonym John Johnson. The contemporaneous account of the prosecution claimed that the conspirators attempted to dig a tunnel from beneath Whynniard's house to Parliament, although this story may have been a government fabrication; no evidence for the existence of a tunnel was presented by the prosecution, and no trace of one has ever been found. Location Conspirators were rent a nearby undercroft, directly beneath the House of Lords. Unused and filthy, it was considered an ideal hiding place for the gunpowder the plotters planned to store. According to Fawkes, 20 barrels of gunpowder were brought in at first, followed by 16 more on 20 July. DISCOVERY "retyre youre self into yowre contee whence yow maye expect the event in safti for ... they shall receyve a terrible blowe this parleament". On the evening of 26 October, Lord Monteagle received an anonymous
letter warning him to stay away, and to: The letter was shown to King James. The King ordered Sir Thomas Knyvet to conduct a search of the cellars underneath Parliament, which he did in the early hours of 5 November. Fawkes had taken up his station late on the previous night, armed with a slow match.He was found leaving the cellar, shortly after midnight, and arrested. Inside, the barrels of gunpowder were discovered hidden under piles of firewood and coal. Torture Fawkes gave his name as John Johnson and was first interrogated
by members of the King's Privy Chamber,
where he remained defiant. Fawkes admitted his
intention to blow up the House of Lords,
and expressed regret at his failure to do so.
His steadfast manner earned him the admiration of King James,
who described Fawkes as possessing "a Roman resolution". The observer Sir Edward Hoby
remarked "Since Johnson's being in the Tower,
he beginneth to speak English".
Fawkes revealed his true identity on 7 November,
and told his interrogators that there were five
people involved in the plot to kill the King.
He began to reveal their names on 8 November,
and told how they intended to place Princess Elizabeth on the throne. Prisoners were made to dictate their confessions,
before copying and signing them, if they still could.
Although it is uncertain if he was subjected to the horrors of the rack,
Fawkes's signature, little more than a scrawl,
bears testament to the suffering he endured
at the hands of his interrogators. Execution On 31 January 1606, Fawkes and three others
conspirators were executed, opposite the building
they had attempted to destroy.
Guy asked for forgiveness and later although
weakened by torture, Fawkes managed to jump from the
gallows, breaking his neck in the fall
and thus avoiding the agony of the latter part of his execution.His body
parts were distributed to"the four corners
of the kingdom", to be displayed as a warning
to other would-be traitors. Legacy In Britain, 5 November has variously been called Guy Fawkes Night,
Guy Fawkes Day, Plot Night and Bonfire Night;
the latter can be traced directly back
to the original celebration of 5 November 1605. On 5 November 1605 Londoners were encouraged to celebrate the King's escape from assassination by lighting bonfires,
"always provided that 'this testemonye of joy be carefull done without any danger or disorder'" An Act of Parliament designated each 5 November as a day of thanksgiving for "the joyful day of deliverance" The End Bibliography
Allen, Kenneth, The Story of Gunpowder
Fox, Adam; Woolf, Daniel R , The spoken word: oral culture in Britain
Fraser, Antonia, The Gunpowder Plot, Phoenix
Northcote Parkinson, C., Gunpowder Treason and Plot
Thompson, Irene, The A to Z of Punishment and Torture: From Amputations to Zero Tolerance, Book Guild Publishing