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Transcript of MUSIC APPRECIATION
Why play or study music?
Why listen to music?
What can music be used for?
How do we experience?
Differing Opinions (bias)
Elements of Music
, Scene 2 (1910), Igor Stravinsky (description/listening guide pg. 7-8)
C Jam Blues
(1942), Duke Ellington
(description/listening guide pg. 8-9)
Performing Media: Voices/Instruments
- Most used instrument (Why?)
- breath, diaphragm, abdominal muscles, air support, lung power
- Singing in music therapy (stuttering)
- Virtuosity (what does that mean?)
Sound, Pitch, Dynamics, Tone Color
Preface: NO BOOK DEFINITIONS!!
(tone, intervals, octave, pitch range, solfege, vibration)
Dr. Matthew Postle
MUSIC APPRECIATION: Introduction
Cellist: Yo Yo Ma
Singer: Aretha Franklin
What is listening vs hearing?
- Active listening?
Adjectives, description, how will you remember?
Performing Media: Voice
Vocal Cords: (tightening = higher pitch)
Vocal Range: Training, Physical Makeup, Gender
Men's vocal cords: Longer/Thicker (low)
Bobby McFerrin "Drive" (left)
Cassandra Wilson "Sankofa" (right)
-Anything that produces 'musical' sounds other than a voice
- Six Families: What are they?
- All different sizes
- Larger range than
Violins, Violas, Cellos, Bass
- Orchestral Strings:
- vary in size, range, and tone color
- Strings = dominant family of orchestra
Other techniques: Pizzicato, Double-stops. and Vibrato
Other Strings: Guitars and Harps
- Traditionally made from
- now other materials:
- Mostly straight shaped
- Keyholes along body
- Air stream extends when more keys are pressed
- Orchestra = melodic, solo playing (unique timbre)
- Sound produced by:
- Flutes: similar to blowing in a glass bottle
- Single (Clarinet, Sax)
- Double (Oboe, Bassoon)
Orchestral Brass: trumpet, trombone, french horn, tuba
Sound: vibration of lip on mouthpiece
Slides and Valves: lengthen/shorten tubing
Orchestra: most powerful sections
Mutes: Change timbre of instrument
Sound: Struck with hand, mallet, or hammers
- Definite Pitch
- Indefinite Pitch
- European: from 20th cent. onwards
- Non-western: dominate family
- Pop music: majority
Piano, Harpsichord, Organ, Accordion
Piano: Invented ~1700, perfected by 1850s
Accordion: Used in various countries (folk, pop, and other genres)
Harpsichord: 1500s-1775 Pipe Organ: 1600-1750
Tape Studio, Hybrid, Synthesizers
~1700s: First theories
~late 1890s-early 20th century: increase in design
1920s-1930s: Electric Guitar
after 1950: Electronic instruments heavily used in several genres
: ability to generate, modify and control sound. Infinite variety of tone color
Benjamin Britten (1913-1976):
The Young Person's Guide to the Orchestra (1946)
What is Rhythm?
- Beat, Meter, Syncopation
SU-zie HAS a BOY FRIEND vs.
su-ZIE has A boy FRIEND
Other Rhythm Terms
Accelerando vs. Ritardando
largo, andante, moderato, allegro, presto
Music Notation/Notating Pitch
Notating Rhythm/Time Signature
Notation = A system of writing music
- shows pitch and rhythm
Note vs Stem Treble Clef
Music Staff Bass Clef
Sharps, Flats, Natural
Rhythm Notation Chart
Time Signatures (identify the meter)
Time Signature = 4/4