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Copy of Leithwood & Duke: A Century’s Quest to Understand School Lea
Transcript of Copy of Leithwood & Duke: A Century’s Quest to Understand School Lea
Focuses on the improving the commitments and capacities of members the school community to organizational goals. This model is related to building school vision, establishing school goals, providing intellectual stimulation, offering individualized support, modeling best practices and important organizational values, demonstrating high performance expectations, creating a productive school culture, and developing cultures to foster the participation in school decisions. Transformational leadership involves an elevation of both the purpose and resources of those involved in the leader-follower relationship, a “change for the better” (Leithwood & Duke, 1999, p.49).
Psychology has also contributed to improving the process of evaluating teachers, and to learning about how teachers at different stages in their career will respond to school leadership ideas for motivational purposes, and what theoretical leadership ideas will be able to influence teachers decision making and behaviour to improve their impact on students (Leithwood & Duke, 1999, p.58).
This reading discusses how traditions have influenced the hierarchical nature of schools and traditional authority in organizations, as culture, community, norms and routines have been passed from generation to generation, although it acknowledges that the influence of traditions on contemporary leadership models has been neither direct or clear (Leithwood & Duke, 1999, p.56).
It is suggested that religion provided some of the earliest roots of moral leadership as in the past school leaders emphasized that staff and students should aim to live according to virtues, however it is noted that contemporary approaches to moral leadership draw on democratic traditions and values (Leithwood & Duke, 1999, p.57).
Developments in psychology have helped school leaders to make decisions related to students and teachers. Psychological testing has given school leaders information to make decisions about students and development of the field of knowledge related to behaviourism first, then learning processes have affected the way that teachers teach and manage students, and it has improved curriculum development (Leithwood & Duke, 1999, p.58).
Includes normative, political, democratic and symbolic concepts of leadership, focusing on the values and ethics of the leader. Authority and influence are thought to come from what is right or good, and attempts to study management in purely rational terms without values are misguided, as Hodgkinson points out that the intrusion of values into the decision making process is not only inevitable, it is the substance of decision (Hodgkinson quoted in (Leithwood & Duke, 1999, p.50)
Participative leadership- Group, shared, and teacher leadership which stresses the decision making power of the group. One school of thought is that group leadership will increase organization and effectiveness. Another school of thought is that participative leadership is the right way for democratic reasons such as in moral leadership (Leithwood & Duke, 1999, p.51).
Focuses on the functions, tasks, or behaviours of the leader, and assumes that if these tasks are carried out competently, then the work of others will follow. Management is like implementing policy through organizational stability, and activities such as planning, organizing, supervising, coordinating and staffing; i.e. making sure things are done right. While leadership involves taking on the challenge of policy making or organizational change; i.e. making sure the right things get done (Leithwood & Duke, 1999, p.53).
Contingent Leadership/Leadership Styles
This area focuses on how leaders respond to the unique challenges and dilemmas that they face due to the nature and preferences of coworkers, conditions of work, and tasks to be undertaken. This approach considers there to be many different contexts where leadership can take place, and many different approaches to leadership will need to be mastered to solve the large variety of different challenges (Leithwood & Duke, 1999, p.54).
Is described as being focused on the behaviours of teachers as they engage in activities directly affecting the growth of students. Authority and influence is usually acknowledged to be from the principal. This category involves defining the school mission, managing the instructional program, and promoting school climate (Leithwood & Duke, 1999, p.47).
Provided evidence that a school leader should be more of a “change agent” in a school improvement effort, and helped to improve the understanding of the complex processes of school change and to make them easier to understand and implement for everyone (Leithwood & Duke, 1999, p.60).
Some interesting ideas in this section were: Agreement and understanding of knowledge is personally constructed, organizational behaviour is often not rational as people lack information or more often as the pursue their own goals and values, most administrative decisions are value laden, human systems are less predictable than physical systems, the meaning people give to events is shaped by their goals, values, feelings, and existing knowledge, and past experiences, (Leithwood & Duke, 1999, p.64)