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Challenges and opportunities for education in the 21st century
Transcript of Challenges and opportunities for education in the 21st century
for education in OECD countries Living in the world Ways of thinking Ways of working 21st century skills Citizenship Life and careers Personal and social responsibility Creativity, critical thinking, problem-solving, decision-making and learning Communication and collaboration Tools for working Information literacy, technology 21st century learning environments Demanding to every student without overloading Acutely sensitive to individual differences Ensure learning is social and collaborative Make learning central, encourage engagement,
Be the place where students come to understand themselves School leaders also played a key role in integrating external and internal accountability systems by supporting their teaching staff in aligning instruction with agreed learning goals and performance standards
To evaluate school performance, two-thirds of OECD countries have regulations that require lower secondary schools to be inspected regularly where leaders are held accountable for their use of public funding and for the structures and processes they establish PISA shows that, on average now 84% of students are enrolled in schools that have full autonomy in deciding how their budgets are spent, and 57% are in schools that are fully autonomous in formulating their budgets School leaders develop networks and share their tasks with vice-principals or co-principals, deputy principals, assistant principals, vocational/technical department heads, workshop managers and/or co-coordinators and teachers with special duties. Leadership structures or more informal ad hoc groups based on expertise and current needs are formed to encourage a distribution of responsibilities Continual assessment with formative feedback Promote connections across subjects and activities and beyond school Teachers need to be well-versed in the subjects they teach in order to be adept at using different methods and, if necessary, changing their approaches to optimize learning Teachers need a rich repertoire of teaching strategies, the ability to combine approaches, and the knowledge of how and when to use certain methods and strategies. Teachers need to have a deep understanding of how learning happens, and and strengthen student initiative and create skills Teachers need to be able to work in highly collaborative ways, working with other teachers and professionals or para-professionals within the same organization, or with others in other organizations, in networks of professional communities and in different partnership arrangements, including, for some, mentoring teachers Teachers need the space to design, lead, manage and plan learning environments in collaboration with others Teachers need to reflect on their practices in order to learn from their experience Developing
21st century teachers The strategies used should include direct, whole-group teaching, guided discovery, group work, and the facilitation of self-study and individual discovery. Understanding learning to improve teaching Given the uncertainties that accompany change, education stakeholders tend to value the status quo. Systems need to become better at communicating and building support for change. Challenges and opportunities for education Many Japanese students still struggle with open-ended tasks requiring students to creatively integrate knowledge... Teachers need to acquire strong technology skills and skills to use technology as effective teaching tools, both to optimize the use of digital resources in their teaching and to use information-management systems to track student learning Singapore’s Future Schools, encourage innovation and enterprise in teaching practice and flexible learning environments with special emphasis on using technology In Singapore, teachers are encouraged to be lifelong learners and are part of professional learning communities in which teachers can learn from each other and improve their practice In Finland, teachers’ time is matched to students’ needs – and this isn’t always class time Sweden introduced curriculum-embedded assessments that avoid the pitfalls of teacher-designed assessments. The are available 'on demand' and designed, administered and scored locally The Le@rning Federation is a major digital content project for schools in New Zealand and Australia Finland’s highly-educated teaching workforce receives a solid base of education theory and is able to apply that to their practice as student teachers, with the support of mentors and team teachers ...but over the last decade Japan has seen the greatest improvement in PISA in this area among all high-performing nations. Finland has made teaching one of the most sought-after occupations by raising entry standards and giving teachers a high degree of professional responsibility Email: Andreas.Schleicher@OECD.org Thank you! Find out more about our work at: www.oecd.org/education
www.data.gov ...and remember: Without data, you are just another person with an opinion School leaders continually challenge staff
...How do we know that?...
...Could we test another way of doing it?...
...What do we know about how people in other schools do it?... Ontario's leadership strategy In Shanghai, the Empowered Administration initiative pairs retired school leaders and teachers with struggling schools to provide administrative and pedagogical guidance Copenhagen, 12 April 2013
Andreas Schleicher, OECD but education doesn't automatically
translate into better outcomes
because skills have an increasing impact on labour market outcomes and social participation
because failure to ensure a good skills match has both short- term consequences (skills shortages) and longer-term effects on economic growth and equality of opportunities Understanding what skills drive economic and social outcomes Governments build strong skills systems and effective partnerships with
key stakeholders to find sustainable approaches to who should
pay for what, when and where Learning the right mix of skills in effective, equitable and efficient ways Economies and labour-markets fully utilize their skill potential
Success with converting skills into jobs and growth depends on whether... ...Skills change lives... ...and drive economies Why direct measures are so important Skills have become the currency
of 21st century societies OECD Japan Japan OECD PISA 2006 - 2009 Fostering demand-sensitive and relevant learning involving employers Compared to purely government-designed curricula taught in exclusively school-based systems, learning in the workplace offers important advantages Fostering lifelong skills-oriented learning instead of qualifications-focused education upfront in life course The kind of things that are easy to test and teach
are disappearing fastest Learning a place
Public vs. private
Culture as obstacle
Standardisation Learning an activity
Public with private
Culture as capital
Ingenious PISA Learning Outcomes (15-year-olds) `` Source: Autor, Levy Murnane In conclusion Then Now Successful reforms tend to involve significant investment in staff development, or clustering reforms to build up support for them in related institutions.
Teacher engagement also requires consistent, co-ordinate efforts to persuade those affected of the need for reform and, in particular, to communicate the costs of non-reform. This may be particularly challenging when the opportunity costs of maintaining the status quo are less apparent than the costs of change. Policy makers need to build consensus on the aims of education reform and actively engage stakeholders, especially teachers, in formulating and implementing policy responses.
Some reforms capitalize on external pressures or crises as part of building a compelling case for change.
All political players and stakeholders need to develop more realistic expectations about the pace and nature of reforms to improve outcomes.
Reforms need to be backed by sustainable financing.
There is some shift away from reform initiatives per se towards building self-adjusting systems with rich feedback at all levels, incentives to react, and tools to strengthen capacities to deliver better outcomes.
Investment is needed in change-management skills
Evidence needs to feed back to institutions along with tools with which they can use the information Making reforms work 21st century reforms and labour relations Teachers need to be active agents, not just in the
implementation of reforms, but also in their design Reform must be underpinned by solid research and analysis Dialogue can involve conversations both within
national professional bodies and among local groups of professionals Conflict between unions and reform has best been avoided not where unions are weak but where they are strong and co-operate with reform The better a country’s education system performs, the more likely that country is working constructively with its unions and treating its teachers as trusted professional partners Governments and unions need to develop their research capacities.
There is need for better links between union researchers and their counterparts in ministries and those in independent research institutes and universities. Socio-economic challenges Growing knowledge intensity Globalisation `` Most countries try hard Different skills Beyond math and science