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Transcript of Pueblo Indians
Austin Whilhelm Pueblo Indians Questions How did the environment affect physical structure and placement of the community? Was the community sedentary or mobile? Why? What materials were used in construction of dwellings? Why? How were Buildings spatially organized? Why? What was the family or social structure of the community? The Pueblo tribes, being a group of sedentary cultivating societies, were not nearly as mobile and thus were
less concerned with transportability of possessions. The permanent settlements allowed, in particular, the
craft of pottery to develop into a high art form among the Pueblos. Pottery by its very nature does not adapt
well to a mobile lifestyle. Metalworking, in the form of
jewelry, is another art form for which Pueblo artists are famous for, that requires a settled lifestyle.
Petroglyphs and pictographs, or "rock art," are forms of artistic expression that both cultures shared. The
Pueblo tribes are well known for their rock art, still visible at many ancient sites such as Bandelier and Honanki-Palatki. Since the Pueblo Indians lived in the West, they used materials like dirt, rock, and straw to make their homes. They made their adobe houses in Pueblo communities called “Pueblos”. An Adobe is mud and straw mixed together and dried in the sun to make a strong material. Pueblo Indians stacked these bricks to make the walls of the house. Gaps between the bricks were filled with more mud to block the wind, rain, and to keep out bugs and other unwanted animals or insects. Since they made bricks out of dirt and straw, rain and wind would eventually cause the bricks to “melt” away. Wooden posts supported the roof which was cover with many layers of material such as sticks, grass, mud, and plaster. The Pueblo most of the time plastered their walls and floors and often painted them with colored bands. Most of their houses had large underground rooms called “Kivas” that were used for ceremonies and important meetings of the tribe. What types of work were done? How were the duties distributed through the community? Subdivisions
While there are numerous subdivisions of Pueblo People that have been published in the literature, Kirchhoff (1954) published a subdivision of the Pueblo People into two subareas: the group that includes Hopi, Zuñi, Keres, Jemez which share exogamous matrilineal clans, have multiple kivas, believe in emergence of people from the underground, have four or six directions beginning in the north, and have four and seven as ritual numbers. This group stands in contrast to the Tanoan-speaking Pueblos (except Keres) who have nonexogamous patrilineal clans, two kivas or two groups of kivas and a general belief in dualism, emergence of people from underwater, five directions beginning in the west, and ritual numbers based on multiples of three.
Eggan (1950) in contrast, posed a dichotomy between Eastern and Western Pueblos, based largely on subsistence differences with the Western or Desert Pueblos of Zuñi and Hopi dry-farmers and the Eastern or River Pueblos irrigation farmers.They mostly grew maize (corn).
Linguistic differences between the Pueblos point to their diverse origins. The Hopi language is Uto-Aztecan; Zuñi is a language isolate; Keresan is a dialect continuum that includes Acoma, Laguna, Santa Ana, Zia, Cochiti, Santo Domingo, San Felipe. The Tanoan is an areal grouping of three branches consisting of 6 languages: Towa (Jemez), Tewa (San Juan, San Ildefonso, Santa Clara, Tesuque, Nambe, Pojoaque, and Hano); and the 3 Tiwa languages Taos, Picuris, and Southern Tiwa (Sandia, Isleta). One of the main characteristics of the Pueblo Indians is the way they build their houses. While most Native Americans lived in tepees or wigwams, Pueblo Indians built actual houses out of wood, adobe, stone, and dirt, with a wooden roof covered with mud plaster. The houses, which were built up to five stories high, were called "pueblos" (the Spanish word for "town") and were very useful for hot weather, because they kept the inside of the house cool. The doors were always at the top of the house, so that if an enemy attacked, the Pueblo Indians could pull up the ladder that led to their door. Each band of Pueblo Indians would live inside a small group of houses, and each family got one room. Some Pueblos were 4 or 5 stories high. In larger Pueblos there are several individual Pueblo buildings built around a plaza or square. The homes called pueblos were also built on mesas, cliffs, and in canyons. The village was built around the kiva. The kiva was a round building with steps going up to the roof entrance. The men met in the kivas to discuss problems and to worship. The houses were owned by the women. Logs from long trees were used to support the roof. Each family lived in a room that was only 12 by 24 feet in size. The outer walls were built first. Poles were then placed on top of the outer walls. Next willow branches were piled on the beams that supported the roof. Houses shared walls and were often stacked on top of each other. One’s porch was often the roof of the house below. Ovens were built on roofs. Doors and windows were small to keep out the heat. The Pueblos entered their homes by ladders through the roof. The ladders could be moved if enemies attacked. Inside the pueblo, ledges on walls were used as shelves. The people sat on blankets. Beds were rugs or sheepskins. The Pueblo village had about 500 people or less living in it. Bibliography http://www.texasbeyondhistory.net/kids/houses/pueblos.html http://artofthefirebird.com/writing/puebloandplains.pdf The Indians practiced weaving; they lived in caves or built shelters of poles and adobe mud. Pumpkins and corn were grown as a supplement to hunting and the gathering of wild plants. Food was stored in undergound pits, often lined with stone slabs. With the addition of a bean crop and the domestication of the turkey, agriculture became more important than hunting and gathering during the Modified Basket Maker period (500-700). Pottery was introduced. The food storage pits developed into semisubterranean houses and ceremonial chambers, and buildings began to take their present connected form. The Indians practiced weaving; they lived in caves or built shelters of poles and adobe mud. Pumpkins and corn were grown as a supplement to hunting and the gathering of wild plants. Food was stored in undergound pits, often lined with stone slabs. With the addition of a bean crop and the domestication of the turkey, agriculture became more important than hunting and gathering during the Modified Basket Maker period (500-700). Pottery was introduced. The food storage pits developed into semisubterranean houses and ceremonial chambers, and buildings began to take their present connected form. http://www.dragonflydream.com/puebloindians.html "Pueblo Indians." Dragonfly Dream. http://www.dragonflydream.com/puebloindians.html. Bibliography Summary:
The Pueblo tribes, being a group of sedentary cultivating societies, were not nearly as mobile and thus were less concerned with transportability of possessions. Since the Pueblo Indians lived in the West, they had to use materials like dirt, rock, and straw to build their homes. The houses, which were built up to five stories high, were called "pueblos" (the Spanish word for "town") and were very useful for hot weather, because they kept the inside of the house cool. The men met in the kivas to discuss problems and to worship. The houses were owned by the women. The boys would usually learn to hunt with the men and the girls would usually help out with the women. The Indians practiced weaving (women/girls), hunting (men/boys) and gathering (women/girls), pottery (women/girls), and they grew crops (everyone). The men would hunt and grow crops. The women would weave, gather food, and do pottery. The boys would learn to hunt with the men and some would help the women. The girls would usually help out with the women weaving, gathering, and do pottery. "Pueblo Tribe." Kidport Home Page. http://www.kidport.com/reflib/usahistory/Nativeamericans/Pueblo.htm#Title "Native American Homes: Wigwams, Longhouses, Tepees, Lodges, and other American Indian houses." Native American Language Net: Preserving and promoting indigenous American Indian languages. http://www.native-languages.org/houses.htm "Pueblo." ~Mountain City Elementary School - Mountain City, Tennessee~. http://www.mce.k12tn.net/indians/reports2/pueblo.htm