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Transcript of Nutrients
6. Water Carbohydrates are the body's chief source of energy. There are three main types of carbohydrates 3 main types of carbohydrates Sugars Starches Fiber Simple Complex Complex Most carbohydrates are of plant origin Sugars are simple carbohydrates. This means that they are made up of single units or pairs of sugar units. Starch and Fiber are complex carbohydrates. That means that they are made from many glucose sugar units that are bonded together. Experts recommend that most of the calories in your diet come from complex carbohydrates. Starches are the most abundant carbohydrate in the diet. When humans digest starch, they release that energy for use in the body. Humans cannot digest fiber. It provides bulk in the diet and promotes normal bowel function. Fiber is also linked to prevention of heart disease and some types of cancer. Fiber binds to a compound made from cholesterol and carries it out of the body. Fiber stimulates action of muscles in the digestive tract, helping speed food through the body. Functions of Carbohydrates Provide energy Help body digest fats Allow body to use protein for growth and maintenance instead of energy If you do not eat enough carbohydrates, the body will use protein as an energy source. This can interfere with the normal growth and repair of body tissues. Fats are an important energy source Fats are a type of lipid. Lipids contain fatty acids. Fatty Acids Fatty acids are chemical chains that contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen atoms. Saturated Unsaturated Saturated fatty acids are fatty acids that have as many hydrogen atoms as they can hold and are solid at room temperature. Meat and dairy products are high in saturated fat. Saturated fat should be limited in the diet. Saturated fat increases the blood cholesterol level, which is a risk factor for heart disease. Unsaturated fatty acids have fewer hydrogen atoms than they can hold. Monounsaturated Polyunsaturated Monounsaturated fatty acids are missing one hydrogen atom Polyunsaturated fatty acids are missing two or more hydrogen atoms Unsaturated fats are liquid at room temperature (solid) (liquid) Hydrogenation! Hydrogenation is a process that adds hydrogen atoms to unsaturated fatty acids(liquid) to make them into saturated fatty acids(solid). Most stick margarines are made from hydrogenated oils. When oils are partly hydrogenated, trans fatty acids are created, which may create a health concern. Fats carry certain vitamins, help maintain body temperature and taste delicious. Butter, margarine, salad dressings, oils, egg yolks, dairy products, meat and avocados are significant sources of fat. Proteins are chemical compounds that are found in every body cell. They are made up of amino acids. Your body needs amino acids from proteins for growth, maintenance and repair of tissues. Proteins also provide energy, but your body goes to fat and carbohydrates for energy first. Many animal and plant foods provide proteins, such as lean meats, poultry, fish, milk, cheese and eggs. Dried beans, peas, and nuts are also protein sources. If the diet contains too much protein, the body converts the extra protein to fat and stores it in the fat tissue. Experts have found that 9 of the amino acids in protein are essential. Complete proteins provide all 9 of the essential amino acids and will support growth and normal maintenance of body tissues Incomplete proteins do not have all 9 and will neither support growth nor provide for normal maintenance Cereals
Peanuts Vitamins are complex organic substances that you need for normal growth, maintenance, and reproduction. Vitamins are either fat-soluble or water-soluble Fat soluble Water soluble Fat soluble vitamins dissolve in fats Fat soluble vitamins can be stored in the fatty tissues in the body. Water soluble vitamins dissolve in water The body does not store water-soluble vitamins do any great extent. Excess are carried out of the body through urination. Vitamins A, D, E, and K Vitamin C and B-Complex Vitamins Vitamin A Vitamin D Vitamin E Vitamin K Vitamin C Thiamin Riboflavin Niacin Vitamin B6 Folate Vitamin B12 Pantothenic Acid Biotin Vitamin A Helps keep skin clear, eyes adapt to darkness, promotes growth Found in: liver, egg yolk, whole milk and butter, fish oil. Deficiency = night blindness
Excess=rare, vomiting Complete Incomplete Eggs
Dairy products You can combine incomplete proteins to make complete proteins :) Vitamin D Vitamin D promotes growth of bones and teeth by helping the body use calcium and phosphorous Found in: eggs, liver and fatty fish; fortified milk, cereal and margarine. Deficiency= rickets (crooked legs and misshapen breastbones)
Excess: Nausea, diarrhea, loss of weight, kidney and lung damage, bone deformation Vitamin E Vitamin E is a dietary antioxidant, which reduces the harmful effects of oxygen on normal body function. Found in: fats and oils, whole grain breads, liver, eggs, whole milk, leafy greens Deficiency: Rare
Excess: Rare, increased risk for hemmorhage Vitamin K Vitamin K helps blood clot Found in: leafy greens, cauliflower, egg yolk Deficiency= Rare, hemmorhage
Excess= Rare, toxicity Vitamin C Vitamin C promotes healthy gums and tissues, helps wounds and broken bones heal, fights infection Found in: fresh fruits and vegetables Deficiency= Poor appetite, weakness, bruising, soreness, SCURVY (weakness, bleeding gums, tooth loss, internal bleeding)
Excess= Nausea, cramps, diarrhea Thiamin Thiamin helps promote normal appetite and digestion, helps break down carbs, keeps nervous system healthy, helps release energy from food a B-complex vitamin Found in: Dried beans, eggs, bread, cereal, fish, pork, poultry Deficiency= Nausea, loss of appetite, Beriberi ( numbness in feet and ankles, cramping in legs, leg stiffness, paralysis, potentially fatal Riboflavin a B-complex vitamin Riboflavin helps cells use oxygen, keeps skin, tongue, and lips normal, helps break down carbs Found in: meat, milk, eggs, oysters, leafy greens, whole grains Deficiency: swollen and cracked lips, skin lesions, inflamation of eyes. Niacin a B-complex vitamin Niacin keeps nervous system, skin, mouth, tongue and digestive tract healthy Found in: Dried beans and peas, bread, cereal, fish, meat, milk, poultry, peanuts Deficiency= Pellagra (skin lesions, digestive problems, mental disorders, death Vitamin B6 a B-complex vitamin Vitamin B helps nervous tissue function normally, helps break down protein, fats, and carbohydrates Found in: liver, meat, vegetables, whole grain cereals Deficiency= Rare, skin lesions, soreness of mouth, smooth red tongue, nausea, comiting, weight loss, irritability, convulsive seizures Folate a B-complex vitamin Folate helps produce normal blood cells, helps convert food into energy, helps prevent damage to the brain and spinal cord of unborn babies Found in:broccoli, asparagus, leafy greens, dry beans and peas, liver, yogurt, strawberries, bananas, oranges and whole grain cereals Deficiency= inflammation of the tongue, digestive disorders, diarrhea, anemia (weakness and fatigue) Vitamin B12 a B-complex vitamin Vitamin B12 protects against pernicious anemia, plays a role in the normal functioning of cells. Found in: cheese, eggs, fish, liver and other meats, milk Deficiency= sore tongue, weakness, loss of weight, nervous disorders, pernicious anemia (depression and drowsiness, death) Pantothenic Acid a B-complex vitamin Pantothenic acid helps release energy from carbs, fats and proteins,promotes growth, and helps the body make cholesterol Found in: bran, dry beans, egg yolk, milk, meat, yeast Deficiency = rare, vomiting, sleeplessness and fatigue Biotin a B-complex vitamin Biotin helps the body break down energy nutrients Found in: chicken, eggs, fresh vegetables, kidney, liver, milk, some fruits Deficiency= rare, scaly skin, mild depression, fatigue, muscular pain, and nausea Minerals are inorganic substances that becomes part of the bones, soft tissues and body fluids Minerals are either macrominerals or microminerals (or trace elements) Macrominerals Trace elements microminerals Macrominerals are needed in amounts of 100 or more milligrams each day. Microminerals, or trace elements are needed in amounts less than 100 miligrams per day Calcium Phosphorus Magnesium Sodium
Chlorine Iron Iodine Zinc Fluorine Calcium helps bones and teeth helps blood clot helps muscles and nerves work Found in: leafy greens, milk, cheese, dairy Phosphorous Helps build strong bones and teeth Helps regulate many internal bodily activities Found in: protein and calcium food sources Magnesium Helps cells use energy nutrients Helps regulate body temperature Helps muscles and nerves work Found in: beans, dark green leafy vegetables, meat, nuts, whole grains Sodium
Chlorine Work together to control osmosis Help nervous system and muscles work Help cells absorb nutrients Sodium found in : processed foods, table salt Chlorine found in: table salt Potassium found in: bananas, citrus fruits, dark green leafy vegetables, meat, milk Iron Combines with protein to make hemoglobin Helps cells use oxygen Found in: dried beans and peas, dried furits, egg yolk, breads, cereals, leafy green vegetables, lean meats, liver Zinc Helps enzymes function Helps wounds heal Aids work of the immune system Promotes normal growth Found in: legumes, meat, poultry, seafood, whole grains Iodine Promotes normal functioning of the thyroid gland Found in: iodized table salt, saltwater fish and shellfish Fluorine Helps teeth resist decay Helps maintain bone health Found in: tap water, toothpaste Between 50-75% of your body weight is water. Water aids proper digestion and cell growth and maintenance, lubricates the body cells and helps regulate body temperature How much water should you drink each day? Divide your weight in half and that is how many ounces of water you should drink each day :) If you have diarrhea, are vomiting or are sweating excessively, you need to increase your water intake If you don't have enough water, you will be thirsty. Then, dryness of the mouth, weakness, increased pulse rate, flushed skin and fever... then DEATH (after a few days) Ok that's it. It's been real. Love, Ms. Skelly Complete proteins contain all 9 essential amino acids in sufficient amounts Incomplete proteins do not contain all 9 essential amino acids THE END!