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Unit 1 AOS 1 Health and Human Development
Transcript of Unit 1 AOS 1 Health and Human Development
In your workbook, write a couple of sentences or a list of words of what 'Health' means for you.
OK, so that explains 'health'... but this is health and human development!
The human lifespan:
An understanding of the human lifespan and the various stages within it allows analysis and discussion of health and individual human development that occurs for people at different times throughout their lives.
The human lifespan can be broken up into different stages, although different cultures and societies have different ways of defining the stages.
What might the stages be?
Understanding the concept of ‘health’ is important for gaining an accurate knowledge of the level of health experienced in Australia.
This understanding allows areas for improvement to be identified and targeted.
A deep understanding of health will also allow for predictions to be made about the likely effect that introduced strategies and actions will have on the health of individuals.
Unit 1 Health and Human Development
Compare your list or sentence to the people sitting around you.
What are the similarities?
What are the differences?
So how then do we define HEALTH?
Complete handout in pairs;
There has been ongoing debate about the meaning of health since the first commonly accepted definition was released by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 1946:
‘health is a state of complete physical, mental and social wellbeing and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity. ’
Although this is a broad definition, it is the one used by health professionals to define health. It was the first definition to consider health as being more than just the physical aspect, and recognises the other types or dimensions of health — social and mental.
The dimensions of health
P M S
Physical health refers to the current condition of the body and its systems. Most aspects of physical health can be readily measured or observed.
Mental health refers to a ‘state of wellbeing in which the individual realises his or her own abilities, can cope with the normal stresses of life, can work productively and fruitfully, and is able to make a contribution to his or her community’ (WHO, 2009).
This includes thoughts and the impact that a person’s feelings have on themselves.
Interacting with other people is an important aspect of human nature.
Social health refers to these interactions and their quality.
Someone who is experiencing a good level of social health typically has a good network of friends and a supportive and understanding family, with all their social needs met.
HEALTH... Its all about the interrelationships!
Create a summary poster of the dimensions of health. You are required to include the following:
- Definition of health
- Definition of EACH (3) dimension of health
- Examples of each dimension
- Examples of 'overlapping' or interrelated dimensions.
(You may like to do this as a venn diagram)
You will each be numbered 1, 2 or 3.
1: Physical Health
2: Mental Health
3: Social Health
Your task is to read through what this dimension of health refers to from CH2. Write a short summary explaining this dimension in your workbook.
You will be explaining your dimension to your group, make sure you understand it well!
Write down 2 questions to quiz your peers to check that they understood :)
TEXT BOOK QUESTIONS:
Chapter 2.1: Case Study
"Confronting the issue"
Read and respond to review questions in your workbook
Chapter 2.1: Test & Apply your knowledge
Complete questions 1 to 14 in your workbook
Individual human development encompasses the changes that people experience from conception until death.
Development is often characterised by milestones that are predictable and occur in a sequential order. Going through puberty, learning to walk or learning the skills required to interact with others are examples of milestones associated with individual human development.
P I E S
In this course, we will examine four types or dimensions of individual human development.
All four dimensions are interrelated and therefore affect each other.
We will explore these relationships in more detail later.
It is important to understand the four dimensions of development before investigating the characteristics that are common during youth.
Physical development refers to the changes that occur to the body and its systems.
It includes external changes that you can see, such as changes in height, and internal changes you cannot see, such as the increasing size of the heart.
Physical development includes growth as well as motor skill development.
Complete Chapter 1.2
Test your knowledge
Q1 - 5
People from different cultures are raised with different values and skills relating to how they are expected to interact with others.
A newborn child knows very little about how to interact with others; it must learn the appropriate social skills and behaviours.
Social development refers to the social skills and behaviours that are learnt from a young age.
Complete Chapter 1.3
Test your knowledge
Questions 1 & 2
Complete Case Study Review questions Chapter 1.3
"Gone to the dogs: the girl who ran with the pack"
Emotional development refers to developing the full range of emotions, and learning appropriate ways of dealing with and expressing these emotions. Good emotional development encourages positive self-esteem.
Intellectual development refers both to the processes that occur within the brain and to the increasing complexity of the brain.
Complete Test Your Knowledge
Learning tasks, handouts and all class resources will be available on schoology.
Some tasks will be submitted on schoology - it is important that you have your netbook / device for every lesson!
The Prenatal Stage
The prenatal stage begins when a sperm penetrates an egg in a process known as fertilisation, to form one complete cell, called a zygote.
The prenatal stage continues until birth and is characterised by the development of the body’s organs and structures, and substantial growth.
The unborn baby goes from being a single cell (smaller than a quarter of a millimetre across) to consisting of more than 200 billion cells at birth and weighing around 3.5 kilograms on average.
This process takes 40 weeks to complete. In terms of rate of growth, the prenatal stage is by far the fastest growth period of all the human lifespan stages. It is also one of the most uncertain in terms of making it all the way through the pregnancy and the process of birth.
The Infancy stage (Birth - 2nd Birthday)
As with most lifespan stages, there is debate about when infancy finishes. Everyone accepts that it starts at birth, but when does the infant become a child? Historically, infancy was considered to continue until the onset of speech.
However, because infants can vary greatly in the time at which they start speaking, many organisations and professionals in this field have adopted the view that this stage ends with the second birthday (approximately). Therefore we will also use the second birthday as signifying the end of the infancy period.
Infancy is a period of rapid growth with many changes. A newborn baby is obviously very different from a two year old. By the time an infant turns two, they have developed their motor skills and can walk, use simple words, identify people who are familiar to them, play social games — and throw tantrums when they do not get what they want.
Many of the developmental milestones that the infant achieves will have some sort of bearing on how they develop in later years.
The Childhood Stage
Like infancy, the start and end of the childhood stage is a difficult thing to define. Most people say that it ends at the onset of puberty. As the age of the onset of puberty shows great variation among individuals, this study uses the 12th birthday to signify the end of childhood.
The development that occurs in childhood is substantial, so it is worthwhile considering this lifespan as being divided into early childhood and late childhood.
Early childhood starts at the end of infancy and continues until the sixth birthday.
This stage is characterised by slow and steady growth, and the accomplishment of many new skills.
The child learns social skills that will allow them to interact with other people.
They will make friends, be able to eat with adults at the table and become toilet trained.
Late childhood starts at the sixth birthday and ends at age 12.
Like early childhood, late childhood is characterised by slow and steady growth.
There are many physical, social, emotional and intellectual changes that occur as the child moves through this stage.
These include refining reading and writing skills, developing long-term memory, understanding gender stereotypes and refining motor skills.
The Youth Stage
The youth stage of the lifespan has steadily lengthened over the past 100 years. This has resulted from puberty starting earlier, and young people taking longer to gain independence and reach maturity in other aspects of their lives. As a result, the youth stage of the lifespan is perhaps the hardest to define. We will assume that youth starts at 12 years of age and continues until 18, although this may vary depending on the research used. The youth stage is characterised by rapid growth, increased independence and sexual maturity.
This stage of the lifespan is concerned with moving from childhood to adulthood. Youth must undergo vast physical changes in order to achieve sexual maturity, and therefore the ability to reproduce. Youth will also undergo significant social, emotional and intellectual changes as they become accustomed to greater independence, more complex relationships and the development of life goals (figure 1.5).
The end of youth is characterised by a level of maturity in the physical, social, emotional and intellectual changes that have been occurring.
Early adulthood begins at 19 and ends at 40.
Physically, this stage is characterised by the body reaching its physical peak around 25–30 followed by a steady decline in body systems thereafter.
Some growth may continue at the beginning of early adulthood, but all stages of adulthood are essentially periods of maintenance and repair as opposed to the periods of growth experienced in the earlier lifespan stages.
Middle adulthood begins at 40 and continues until the age of 65. The events that occur during this period vary from culture to culture and from individual to individual.
Some of the more common characteristics of this lifespan stage include stability in work and relationships, the further development of identity including the maturation of values and beliefs, financial security, physical signs of ageing and, for women, menopause. During this stage, an individual’s children may gain independence and leave home, giving the parent a new sense of freedom. Sometimes this can also create a sense of loss or loneliness, often referred to as ‘empty nest syndrome’. Many individuals in the middle adulthood stage will experience the joy of becoming grandparents for the first time, although this can occur in late adulthood as well.
Late adulthood, the final stage of the lifespan, occurs from the age of 65 until death. This period is characterised by a change in lifestyle arising from retirement and financial security (for most). It can include greater participation in voluntary work and in leisure activities such as golf and bowls (figure 1.7). Many older people may also have to endure the grief associated with the death of friends or a spouse.
Adulthood is the longest stage of the lifespan.
When we are looking at developmental changes in adulthood, the focus shifts from growth to maintenance, then decline.
We can break this stage of the lifespan into three:
You may work in pairs to complete this activity.
You are to create a visual timeline of development
across the lifespan. This is to be completed and submitted electronically (Prezi, Powtoon etc)
You must include the following:
- the relevant ages for each stage
- examples of developmental changes that are occurring at each stage (at least two for each of the PIES dimensions)
- at least one image for each stage
1. Define health
2. What are the dimensions of individual human development?
3. Draw a visual representation of the aspects of health
4. What is a health continuum?
Pens out, you have 5 mins!
Each group will receive a set of A4 cards.
Using these, you are to create a timeline of development.
On each, you are to record the following:
- key characteristics
- key changes (PIES)
Lets focus on the YOUTH stage of development.
In pairs, create a P.I.E.S matrix...
think of as many changes as you can that may be occurring... at least 8 for each dimension
The youth stage of the lifespan is a time of rapid physical development that commences at puberty.
Puberty is triggered by hormones released in the pituitary gland (in the brain) and causes many changes in the body including
- an increase in the rate of growth,
- a refinement of gross and fine motor skills,
- the development of primary and secondary sex characteristics.
The adolescent growth spurt is one of the most easily recognisable signs of puberty.
During the growth spurt, the individual will grow at the fastest rate since infancy
Primary and secondary sex characteristics
Primary sex characteristics are those parts of the body that are directly involved in reproduction. During puberty, changes occur to the organs of reproduction commonly referred to as the ‘genitals’. Although present at birth, these organs only develop and become fully functional during puberty.
Even though considerable physical changes occur during youth, the social changes can be just as intense.
Youth generally move from being essentially dependent on parents, to being largely independent.
They learn how to act among different groups, and change the way they behave according to the situation.
The types of interactions that occur also change as youth are given greater freedom and treated more like adults.
As a result, their communication skills are further developed.
In forming their own values and beliefs and struggling to become independent, youths can often come into conflict with their parents or other caregivers.
... Does this sound familiar to anyone?
Up until adolescence, parents often make most of the decisions for their child.
During youth, relationships with parents are often re-organised in such a way that both the child and parent have a say in decision making.
As a result of this struggle, (and the other changes that youths experience, such as identity formation, social changes and puberty) youths may disagree with parents more often, which can lead to escalating conflict.
There is some great news though!
.... most young people emerge from this stage with a deeper understanding of their parents and vice versa.
In pairs, brainstorm a list of social changes / social development that may be occurring during youth
Social development during youth
Emotional development during youth
As with social and physical development, the emotional changes that occur during youth are significant.
As a result of all the changes that youth go through, the way they view themselves and how they deal with these feelings may also change. In the early stages of youth, individuals might be very self-conscious and begin asking themselves, ‘Am I normal?’
As a result of these feelings, youth might explore strategies, such as consulting with friends, in order to deal with these emotions effectively.
How might relationships impact our emotional development?
Intellectual development during youth
During youth, physiological changes occur in the brain and in the way that the young person perceives problems.
These changes result in significant advances in intellectual development.
Youth begin to see ‘grey’ areas in problems when they would have seen only ‘black and white’ in the past.
During this stage, the brain structures mature and abstract thought develops, as opposed to the concrete thought relied upon in childhood.
Information can be processed more efficiently, and groups of concepts that were viewed individually might now be linked together and viewed as an interrelated whole.
Examples of intellectual development during this stage include the following.
Reasoning skills increase
. As youth are presented with problems, they start to apply related knowledge to the problems in order to make educated guesses. In contrast, most children can see only concrete solutions.
The ability to create hypothetical solutions
and evaluate the best options develops. This comes from previous experiences and from applying old knowledge to new situations.
Focus on the future increases
. This may guide intellectual development — for example, students wanting to study science might develop an interest in learning about scientific principles and choose science courses at school.
Thinking becomes more informed.
Youths can distinguish between fact and opinion and may challenge views put to them by others, including adults.
More complex concepts are learned at school.
As a result, youths may develop an understanding of how they learn best (e.g. visual versus aural learners).
Complete 1.6 "Test your knowledge"
Concrete vs abstract thinking:
How many triangles are there here?
Show a 'brainteaser' like the triangle problem to another young person (early or late childhood) so that they may have a chance to solve it.
Compare their response to your own
Matt is in year 7 and started puberty 12 months ago. As a result, he is more physically developed than his friends, whom he has had since primary school. Matt has begun to excel at football because he is taller and stronger than the other boys of his age. He has started to socialise with his brother’s friends, who are in year 9. They are similar in size to him and he feels more ‘normal’ when he spends time with them. As they are two years older than Matt, they do different things when they socialise, including spending time at the shopping centre and going to local discos. One of the reasons Matt enjoys spending time with older people is that he feels it makes him look ‘cool’ in the eyes of other year 7 students.
1. Describe the physical changes Matt has gone through (or will go through) over the next few years.
3. Explain how Matt’s physical development could be affecting his:
- social development
- emotional development
- intellectual development.
you may complete this as a PIES matrix
In small groups, sort the cards to identify the different types of development occurring during the youth stage of the lifespan.