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Animal Models

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on 15 September 2014

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Transcript of Animal Models

Living animal tissues or systems
_Animal tissues can be cultured in a lab.

_This saves the use of animals as well as the expense of feeding, housing, and cleaning up after the animals.

_Alternatives to Animal Models.

_Cell Culture.

_Preliminary screen to check the toxicity of substances.

_Can answer fundamental questions about biology.

_Cannot provide information about potential impacts on entire living organism.


(ZEBRAFiSH)
Animals in Research
Animal Models :
-Many genetic and physiological similarities exist between animals and humans

-Research using animals has been the key to most medical breakthroughs in the past century
*Polio vaccine
*Cataract surgery techniques
*Dialysis

-Biotechnology has developed 111 USDA-
approved veterinary biologics and vaccines


Why do we use zebrafish ?
Zebrafish have become a widely used model organism for drug discovery due to the following attributes:
Why do we use zebrafish ?
Animal Models
(ZEBRAFiSH)

Introduction to Animal Biotechnology
- Genetically engineered animals can be used to Develop new medical treatments.

- Improve our food supply.

- Enhance our understanding of all animals, including humans.

- Presents tough scientific and ethical challenges.


Fecundity:
 Due to the high fecundity of zebrafish, large numbers of embryos are produced. Female zebrafish can produce 200-250 eggs per mating, and mating is not seasonal.

Embryogenesis:
 
The embryogenesis process is very rapid in zebrafish, with the entire body plan established by 24 hours post fertilization. Most of the internal organs are fully developed by 96 hours post fertilization.

Embryogenesis:
 
The embryogenesis process is very rapid in zebrafish, with the entire body plan established by 24 hours post fertilization. Most of the internal organs are fully developed by 96 hours post fertilization.

Similarity:
 
There is approximately 70% similarity between the human and zebrafish genomes. Additionally, when considering the genes that cause disease in humans, 84% have a zebrafish counterpart.

Rapid testing: 
Current technology allows for the testing of upwards of 1000 compounds per day. Zebrafish are the only vertebrate used for rapid in vivo screening of compounds.

Genetic analysis:
 
Zebrafish are amenable to molecular and genetic analysis through rapid determination of temporal and spatial gene expression, examination of specific gene function, gene knockdown, and through large-scale mutagenesis.

Reasons for New Animal model
zebra fish in biotechnology:
1-Regeneration:

 
mature heart muscle cells regress to a stem cells.
Zebrafish have also been found to regenerate photoreceptor cells and retinal neurons following injury.

It use a specialised protein, known as fibroblast growth factor, to ensure their spinal cordsheal without glial scarring after injury.

researchers are using the zebrafish to understand how the genetic defects underlying these conditions cause functional abnormalities in the human brain, spinal cord and sensory organs. Researchers have also studied the zebrafish to gain new insights into the complexities of human musculoskeletal diseases, such as muscular dystrophy.


2-Gene expression:
Due to their short lifecycles, zebrafish are a useful model for genetic studies

3-Use in environmental monitoring:
genetically modified zebrafish to detect oestrogen pollution in lakes and rivers, which is linked to male infertility. The researchers cloned oestrogen-sensitive genes and injected them into the fertile eggs of zebrafish. The modified fish turned green if placed into water that was polluted by estrogen.


4- in medical research:
1-cancer
Zebrafish have been used to make several transgenic models of cancer, including melanoma, leukemia, pancreatic cancer and hepatocellular carcinoma.
2-Cardiovascular disease
In cardiovascular research, the zebrafish has been used to model blood clotting, blood vessel development, heart failure, and congenital heart and kidney disease.
3-Immune system
In programmes of research into acute inflammation, a major underpinning process in many diseases, researchers have established a zebrafish model of inflammation, and its resolution. This approach allows detailed study of the genetic controls of inflammation and the possibility of identifying potential new drugs.
4-Infectious diseases
5-Repairing retinal damage
researchers at University College London grew a type of zebrafish adult stem cell found in the eyes of fish and mammals that develops into neurons in the retina. These could be injected into the eye to treat diseases that damage retinal neurons.


5-Drug discovery:

Zebrafish embryos have proven to be a rapid, cost-efficient


Toxicity assay in zebrafish
Organ specific toxicity

Neurotoxic – cardiotoxicity – liver toxicity – kidney toxicity – gastrointestinal toxicity – pancreatic toxicity

General ToxicityLC50 Lethal Concentration

development toxicity – teratogenicity

toxicity – targeted microarray
Eman Sabbagh
Maha Bashmail
Rawan Baduraig
Wala’a Alshareef
Kholood Baghdadi
Fatimah Alnajjar
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