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The Importance of Authentic Input in the Bilingual Classroom
Transcript of The Importance of Authentic Input in the Bilingual Classroom
“Another example of the connection between music and language learning involves training the ear to hear and produce nuances of sound whether they are musical or linguistic.” CARLA (Center for Advanced Research on Language Acquisition), University of Minnesota
“Music with words uses both brain hemispheres. Emotion and language are one in a song. When coupled with visual images, music becomes a very powerful learning tool” Enhancing Acquisition through Music, Robert Lake
(2) Cross-curricular second language acquisition/listening. The ELL listens to a variety of speakers including teachers, peers, and electronic media to gain an increasing level of comprehension of newly acquired language in all content areas.
(D) monitor understanding of spoken language during classroom instruction and interactions and seek clarification as needed;
(E) use visual, contextual, and linguistic support to enhance and confirm understanding of increasingly complex and elaborated spoken language;
(F) listen to and derive meaning from a variety of media such as audio tape, video, DVD, and CD ROM to build and reinforce concept and language attainment;
(G) understand the general meaning, main points, and important details of spoken language ranging from situations in which topics, language, and contexts are familiar to unfamiliar;
(4) Cross-curricular second language acquisition/reading. The ELL reads a variety of texts for a variety of purposes with an increasing level of comprehension in all content areas.
(C) develop basic sight vocabulary, derive meaning of environmental print, and comprehend English vocabulary and language structures used routinely in written classroom materials;
(D) use prereading supports such as graphic organizers, illustrations, and pretaught topic-related vocabulary and other prereading activities to enhance comprehension of written text;
(F) use visual and contextual support and support from peers and teachers to read grade-appropriate content area text, enhance and confirm understanding, and develop vocabulary, grasp of language structures, and background knowledge needed to comprehend increasingly challenging language;
(H) read silently with increasing ease and comprehension for longer periods; ` Songs, music videos, chants & lyrics Cross Curricular Alignment Celia Cruz
"When people hear me sing, I want them to be happy, happy, happy. I don't want them thinking about when there's not any money, or when there's fighting at home. My message is always felicidad - happiness."
La Reina de Salsa
La Guarachera de Cuba
¡Azúcar! Thematic units - exemplar ` "Stories may serve as a natural bridge between languages and cultures, and exposure to and experience with literature including narratives can be a natural path to second language learning" Language Through Literature, Won Kim, The University of British Columbia "For children learning a second language, having opportunities to read materials in their first language can serve to affirm that they are good readers, even though they may struggle when they read English" Reading and Writing Pathways to Conversation in the ESL Classroom, Ernst & Richard Examples of Authentic Input Stephen Krashen: Authentic (compelling) input is so interesting that you forget it is in another language. It means you are in a state of "flow". In flow, the concerns of everyday life and even the sense of self disappear - our sense of time is altered.
It appears to eliminate the need for motivation, a conscious desire to improve.
We must transition from a skills building model (grammar and skills first; comprehension and fluency later - "delayed gratification" to a comprehension model (authentic input, fluency and comprehension first; grammar and skills later - "instant gratification" Bilingual education Literature Chapter books, picture books, news articles, poetry, non-fiction text, nursery rhymes Images Photographs, images & illustrations Video YouTube, TV, movies Social Media Twitter, Pinterest, Facebook, Google+, Storify, Web 2.0 Listening http://www.rtve.es/a/863050 Entrevista a Celia Cruz en 'Edición de tarde'
01 mar 1995
La cantante cubana comenta algunos de los temas de su último disco 'Irrepetible'. Habla de su grito de guerra "azúcar", así como de su deseo de volver a Cuba después de 35 años. Speaking Reading My Name is Celia/Me llamo Celia: The Life of Celia Cruz/la vida de Celia Cruz by Monica Brown
As you read, notice the "turning points" in Celia's life. Where was she born? When? Where did she first move? When? Why? Where did she end up living the rest of her life? Why?
How does Monica Brown organize the story to describe the events in Celia's life? Writing More research... "Multi-modal instruction can be a
medium to offer content-rich contexts that both address and add to ELs’ funds of knowledge while focusing on listening, speaking, reading, writing, and discussion" Literacy, Technology, and Diversity: Teaching for Success in Changing Times by Cummins, Brown & Sayer Music What is authentic input? Authentic Input in the Second Language Classroom Merriam Webster:
au·then·tic adjective: not false or imitation : real, actual <an authentic cockney accent> : true to one's own personality, spirit, or character
in·put noun: something that is put in: as in information fed into a data processing system or computer Literature Writer's Workshop - to encourage reflective writing, activate background knowledge and make connections to personal stories in L1 & L2 Chapter book studies, author studies - develop understanding and appreciation of culturally relevant stories and authors; touchstones
(1) Acquiring another language incorporates communication skills such as listening, speaking, reading, writing, viewing, and showing. Students develop these communication skills by using knowledge of the language, including grammar, and culture, communication and learning strategies, technology, and content from other subject areas to socialize, to acquire and provide information, to express feelings and opinions, and to get others to adopt a course of action. While knowledge of other cultures, connections to other disciplines, comparisons between languages and cultures, and community interaction all contribute to and enhance the communicative language learning experience, communication skills are the primary focus of language acquisition.
(2) Students of languages other than English gain the knowledge to understand cultural practices (what people do) and products (what people create) and to increase their understanding of other cultures as well as to interact with members of those cultures. Through the learning of languages other than English, students obtain the tools and develop the context needed to connect with other subject areas and to use the language to acquire information and reinforce other areas of study. Students of languages other than English develop an understanding of the nature of language, including grammar, and culture and use this knowledge to compare languages and cultures and to expand insight into their own language and culture. Students enhance their personal and public lives and meet the career demands of the 21st century by using languages other than English to participate in communities in Texas, in other states, and around the world.
Knowledge and Skills (Novice, Intermediate, Advanced)
(1) Communication. The student communicates in a language other than English using the skills of listening, speaking, reading, and writing.
(2) Cultures. The student gains knowledge and understanding of other cultures.
(3) Connections. The student uses the language to make connections with other subject areas and to acquire information.
(4) Comparisons. The student develops insight into the nature of language and culture by comparing the student's own language and culture to another.
(5) Communities. The student participates in communities at home and around the world by using languages other than English. ` Languages Other Than English (LOTE) The English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS), as required by 19 Texas Administrative Code, Chapter 74, Subchapter A, §74.4 TEKS Chapter 114. Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for Languages Other Than English Subchapter C. Authentic input is incorporated into the language instruction through the use of songs, games, stories, etc. that are derived from the target language and culture. This research proposes that language transference is occurring from first language, or L1, to second language, or L2. References "Authentic Input in Early Second Language Learning" Bridget C. Pinsonneault, University of Massachusetts - Amherst
"School Effectiveness for Language Minority Students"
Wayne P. Thomas and Virginia Collier, George Mason University
"What Do Teachers Need to Know About Students Who are Learning to Speak English?" The Iris Center, Peabody College, Vanderbilt University
"Assessing L2 reading texts at the intermediate level: An approximate replication of Crossley, Louwerse, McCarthy & McNamara (2007)" Scott A. Crossley Mississippi State University; Danielle S. McNamara, University of Memphis
"The CALLA handbook: Implementing the
Cognitive Academic Language Learning Approach, Anna Uhl Chamot, George Washington University
Making Content Comprehensible for English Language Learners, Echevarria, Vogt, & Short How is authentic input aligned to standards? synergies & best practices in second language development Practical: Literal: Popular music
La Oreja de Van Gogh - "Rosas"
Mana - "Bendita tu luz"
Inti Illumani - "La tarde se ha puesto triste" Traditional music
Cu cu cu cantaba la rana
Katy, La oruga
Summary: Instruction is provided to all students in two languages (e.g., Spanish and English)
Duration: Instruction usually begins in kindergarten or first grade and continues through elementary school
Also referred to as: Dual language immersion
DEVELOPMENTAL BILINGUAL EDUCATION
Summary: Academic content is provided to ELLs in their native language
Duration: Typically lasts five or six years or more
Also referred to as: Late-exit bilingual program or maintenance bilingual program
TRANSITIONAL BILINGUAL EDUCATION
Summary: Academic content instruction is provided in the student's native language
Objective: English proficiency
Duration: Typically lasts from two to three years but may be concluded sooner in order to transition students into English-only instruction more quickly
Also referred to as: Early-exit programs
ENGLISH AS A SECOND LANGUAGE
Summary: English instruction may be provided in English only or may be delivered in the student's home language
Objective: English proficiency
Duration: Varies based on student's English proficiency and school resources
Also referred to as: English for speakers of other languages (ESOL) "Because social networking places emphasis on building relationships, the use of social communities in foreign language education may also support the situative perspective of learning . This perspective suggests that learning is experienced through relationships and that the individual’s identity as a learner is shaped by his relationship to the community." Situated Learning through Social Networking Communities: The Development of Joint Enterprise, Mutual Engagement, and a Shared Repertoire,
Nicole A. Mills, Harvard University Researchers support multi-modal instruction for second language learners because it provides the students with scaffolds to comprehension with images, words, music, and text that adds context to the language learning:
"With the right technology, ELs can collaborate with classmates to complete interactive tasks that make good sense to them and result in language learning." Exploring Teachers’ Use of Technology in Classrooms of
Bilingual Students, Daniel & Cowan, Northern Illinois University "Interaction with authentic materials aids in contextually grounding instruction by bringing students into contact with language as it is used in the target culture in order to meet actual communication needs... can enhance linguistic and cultural comprehensibility, which are both prerequisites for real language learning." Virtual Realia, Bryan Smith, University of Arizona Music & video or music & lyrics
Listen to the song, pay attention to the chorus:
"Ay, no hay que llorar, que la vida es un carnaval, -Y es más bello vivir cantando... y las penas se van cantando"
Listen to the beat, how does this music make you feel? Lyrics:
"Todo aquel que piense que la vida siempre es cruel, tiene que saber que no es así, que tan solo hay momentos malos, y todo pasa.
Todo aquel que piense que esto nunca va a cambiar, tiene que saber que no es así, que al mal tiempo buena cara, y todo cambia."
Celia said people think life can be cruel and that nothing changes. But she says everything passes, everything changes, there are bad moments, but we need to put a good face on it (keep smiling). What do you think she means? Do you agree with her? Listen to Celia's interview. What are some of the questions the interviewer asks her? Turn and talk with your partner and ask them about his or her favorite music. Why do they like it? What are some of their favorite songs? Why? TEKS 4.b.7 Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Literary Nonfiction.
Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the varied structural patterns and features of literary nonfiction and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to identify similarities and differences between the events and characters' experiences in a fictional work and the actual events and experiences described in an author's biography or autobiography.
National Music Standards
CONTENT STANDARD 8
Understanding relationships between music, the other arts, and disciplines outside the arts. Students identify ways in which the principles and subject matter of other disciplines taught in the school are interrelated with those of music.
National Social Studies Standards
NSS-G.K-12.2 PLACES AND REGIONS
Students should understand how culture and experience influence people’s perceptions of places and regions. Learning Objectives